is the aesthetically pleasing selection & arrangement of elements (shapes, colors, textures, contrast & value) within the picture area (view finder).

Simplicity or Selective Focus

is when the subject is isolated to show emphasis. This can be achieved in several ways:  by isolating your subject using a shallow depth of field (small f-stops)  by isolating your subject by moving close to eliminate unnecessary detail in the foreground or background  by using a telephoto lens to bring the image in closer  including only a few objects within the picture area  putting the main interest in the sharpest focus II.


Types: is the arrangement of elements (shapes, colors, textures, contrast & value) in a way that they compliment one another so that the photo has a feeling of equality and unity. The visual weight is equally distributed and the picture feels harmonious. Symmetrical or Formal balance is achieved when elements on both sides of the picture are of equal visual weight and mirror each other. Usually there is an even number of objects that are of similar size & color. Picture a seesaw with two people of the same weight. Symmetrically balanced pictures may look static and unexciting, but generally pose a feeling of dignity. Asymmetrical or Informal balance is achieved when elements are equal in visual weight, but vary in size, shape, tone and placement. Perhaps there is an odd number of objects. Visual forces are equalized regardless of their differences. Informal balance is more difficult to achieve, but is generally preferred because it is less static. III.

The Rule Of Thirds

visualize the same thing with two horizontal lines. Your viewfinder would now look like a tic tac-toe grid.

: Visualize two vertical lines dividing your viewfinder into thirds. Now To implement the rule, just position your subject at one of the intersections of the imaginary, intersecting lines, or partway between one of the intersections and the center, or where the circles are on the diagram. This will usually give a more pleasing composition than placing the subject dead center of the photo. IV.

Interesting Lines

: The contour lines of your subject(s) interact in an interesting way, or contain interesting designs with interesting lines. Keep in mind the following: Horizontal lines give a feeling of rest, peace or tranquility. Vertical lines give a feeling of strength, stability or dignity. Diagonal lines give a feeling of action or motion and lead the eyes around. Zigzag lines are active and confusing, and can cause chaos. Curved lines imply gracefulness.



is the placement of something in the foreground which is emphasized by what’s in the background to: o give the illusion of depth to spatial relations o force the eye to the main subject (like a tunnel effect) o add interest to ordinary subjects o blend or identify the subject with the surrounding environment VI.

Dominant or Center of Interest

: The main subject can readily be identified because: o it is obviously the greatest importance. o It takes up the largest portion of the picture area. o It contains the brightest area of light. o It is the sharpest in focus. NOTE: Remember to avoid mergers on the borders of the print on the subject where it looks as if the subject has a fo reign object such as a tree, pole or bush “growing out” of them!

Aspects of Balance:

There are many other factors to consider in order to give your pictures balance. An object far from the center of the picture seems to have more weight than one near the center. Objects in the upper part of a picture seem heavier than objects of the same size in the lower part of a picture. Isolation seems to increase the weight of an object. Intensely interesting objects seem to have more visual weight. Regular shapes seem to have more weight than irregular shapes. Elements on the right side of an asymmetrical picture appear to have more weight than elements of the same size on the left side of the picture. The directions in which figures, lines, and shapes appear to be moving within the picture area are important to balance; for example, a person may be walking in a direction, or his eyes may be looking in a direction, or the shape of some element creates a feeling of movement. When the feeling of direction is present within a scene, it tends to upset the balance if judged on the size of the subject alone. Understanding the factors required to create pictorial balance is essential for you to produce good pictures. Once you gain an understanding of the principles of pictorial balance, achieving balance in your photographs becomes an easy process and you can continually test your feelings for balance as you look through your camera viewfinder.