Flaky Baking (page 28-29) Pastry is made using 3 main ingredients: water, flour shortening. Many factors or variables influence the quality of pastry. A variable is any factor that can change and affect the outcome the outcome of an experiment. Flour contains many substances, but the protein is the backbone of the pastry. When the flour is mixed with water it forms a substance called gluten. This gives the dough strength and elasticity. Liquid fat and oils do not form a water solution; instead they form a layer floating on the water. This enables fat to waterproof flour particles. Questions: 1. Describe in your own words the role of each of the following dough ingredients: a) flour b) fat c) water d) salt e) baking powder 2. a) What is gluten? b) What factors determine how much gluten id formed when mixing pastry ingredients? 3. Should you store shortening in a cupboard or in the refrigerator? Explain.