Premier's ABN AMRO Business Studies, Economics Scholarship

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Premier’s ABN AMRO Business Studies, Economics
Scholarship
Business Process Outsourcing and
Finance and Accounting Outsourcing:
An analysis of the trends and issues in
the Asia-Pacific region
Mohan Dhall
Presbyterian Ladies College
Sponsored by
Introduction
In classical economics, trade is premised on the notion of firms seeking competitive
advantage in order to maximise economic returns. Competitive advantage arises when
business firms seek to specialise in those areas over which they have a sustainable
competitive advantage. Comparative advantage in classical economics refers to notions
of national industrial specialisation based on arbitrage – specialisation in those areas over
which an economy experiences the lowest opportunity cost (Black1). Lacity2 argues that
labour arbitrage is a central reason for businesses opting to outsource offshore. This
drive for lower costs leads to the outsourcing question. That is, is it more cost effective
or efficient, to undertake business activities within business hierarchies or is it cheaper to
utilise markets (that is, outsource)? Essentially the economic problem becomes one of
determining whether to assign internal organisational resources and responsibility to the
activity or whether to take that service to the market.
The final issue for business then becomes that of what exactly can be outsourced. This
involves a determination of what is core and what is non-core and how best to structure
the organisation through the use of markets to obtain a competitive advantage.
Focus of the Study
This study set about to explore the trends and development in Business Process
Outsourcing (BPO) and Finance and Accounting Outsourcing (FAO) in the Asia Pacific
Region. Research was conducted in Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, India, Hong Kong
and China, primarily through a series of face-to-face interviews with major participants in
the BPO/FAO industry. Businesses, advisories and vendors were approached in order to
obtain a broad overview and analysis of the scope of BPO and FAO and the challenges
trends and benefits of outsourcing.
Findings/significant learning
Outsourcing
There is nothing new about either the idea or the practice of outsourcing. Zarella3 says
that it is not new in Asia or elsewhere, as evidenced by the use of cleaners, security
guards and auditors. As a phenomenon, outsourcing has a long history. In recent times
globalisation, or the integration of national economies through the removal of artificial
(government imposed) barriers, has led to new opportunities for business. Outsourcing
has changed in response to globalisation and, in turn has shaped the practice of global
businesses. Moreover, technological advances have enabled outsourcing to enter areas of
business operation formerly thought to be immune from the outsourcing phenomenon.
As a result business structures are changing markedly. Traditional organisational
hierarchies are altering and adapting, labour skills sets changing and whole new industries
forming. Indeed, a new business order is emerging that depends on cost arbitrage for its
sustainability. The shape of businesses is changing and Business Process Outsourcing
(BPO) is a huge factor contributing to this change. There are many business benefits that
can be realised from applying and using BPO. However in order to realise the benefits,
business must contend with, and surmount, many obstacles. Some of these obstacles are
external in nature and arise from locality or geographic factors; others relate to
technology and still others to relate to internal business factors.
1
Black, J (2002) Oxford Dictionary of Economics, OUP, New York, p69
Lacity, M (2005) Finding Success Offshore: An interview with Mary Lacity, from
www.coinsight.com.au/article2/0,1540,1777105,00.asp
3
Zarella, E (2006) KPMG International/Economist Intelligence Unit Survey (Sept 2006), KPMG Advisory, p4
2
Moreover, technological advances have expanded the types of business services that can
be outsourced and the physical location of the providers of those services4.
The nature of Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) is a term that captures a range of outsourced
business processes including:
 Operations such as manufacturing, value-adding manufactures, design,
merchandising and sourcing
 Administrative work including data entry
 Human resources including employee counselling, pensions, non-voice employee
data management, training , travel and expenses management5
 Finance and accounting (see below)
 Information technology (IT) data work, desktop outsourcing, enterprise
outsourcing and network outsourcing (remotely hosted software applications)6
 Managerial work (Knowledge Process Outsourcing, KPO) including financial
analysis (‘analytics’), media outsourcing and pharmaceuticals7
 Legal work including paralegal support (transcription, word processing and
document management, legal support (drafting, proofreading, research and
counsel) and patent services8
The nature of Finance and Accounting Outsourcing (FAO)
Finance and Accounting Outsourcing (FAO) is a relatively recent form of outsourcing
that has emerged in the BPO field. Put simply, FAO involves the outsourcing of
business operations relating to the routine aspects involved in the finance and accounting
function.
Types of sourcing and the outsourcing matrix
There are different ways that a business can arrange its structure or utilise markets in
order to take advantage of cost. These options are shown in Table 1.
The sourcing options
Captive or in-house
(Do-it-yourself)
Non-captive (3rd
Party)
Use of the market
or
External
providers/vendors
On-shore
Near shore
Off shore



BHP Billiton
in Adelaide
 Unilever India
using
Capgemini in
Bangalore,
India
 Dairy Farm in
Hong Kong
using
Capgemini
BASF (pharmaceutical
company) serving Asia
Pac via a Sydney office
receiving support from
Kuala Lumpur
 China Mobile using
Ericsson (Asia/Pacific)
 Hewlett Packard European
operations for Proctor and
Gamble in Barcelona
Dell or Intel in
Penang serving
all Dell and
Intel globally
 British Airways
(UK) using
WNS Global
Services
(Mumbai, India)
 General Motors
using AT & T
(Americas)
Table 1 A summary of the different sourcing and outsourcing options with reference to examples
4
ibid
Jamwal, A (2007) “Back (Office) to front”, in Mumbai Mirror, 23.4.07. p54
6
Peisley, K (2007) “IT Outsourcing: ready to rip”, Management Today, August 2007 p31
7
Leahy, J. (2006) “True extending of the law’s long arm”, Financial Times, 1.11.06
8
Nasscom quoted in Leahy, J. (2006) “True extending of the law’s long arm”, Financial Times, 1.11.06
5
The key players in the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) space
In the context of globalisation and rapid advances in technology, global businesses faced
with fundamental profitability, and therefore cost, decisions are at a choice point.
Typically there are two options that businesses are faced with, but both are premised on
financial gains to be made from various forms of arbitrage. Both of the available options
lead to significant reengineering opportunities. A huge and growing number of
businesses are utilising BPO as a means by which they can manage their operations cost
effectively.
The BPO decision
There are many considerations that have to be factored into the BPO decision.
Businesses would typically ask the following questions and may seek the assistance of an
advisory or broker to answer them, prior to making the decision:
 Whether to outsource or not. That is, is a business activity cheaper and more
efficiently performed in-house (captive) or by the market (outsource)?
 If outsourcing is an option then which geographical location is favoured?
 Which vendor or service provider to use and what do they offer?
 How to manage the relocation in terms of governance, length of contract, KPIs
and service levels?
Whether to outsource or not?
This decision essentially centres on cost, however many other factors come into the
decision as will be seen later. There are four options available to businesses9:
Option 1
Shared Services Centres (SSC) or captive centres
This option requires that a business create an ‘in-house’ centre that performs work for
multiple subsidiaries. That in-house centre may be on-shore near shore or offshore, but
is wholly owned by the business. This option uses current organisational hierarchies and
adapts them. The offshore approach may be favoured as a means of accessing a market
that requires sourcing to be local10 (that is, entry into a market by stealth).
Option 2
“Fee-for-service”
This is a low risk, short term strategy that involves engaging a supplier for fixed services
at a pre-determined price. It allows a business to test the BPO market prior to making
the change.
Option 3
Joint ventures
Here the business works with a BPO provider who has particular expertise (for example,
Capgemini undertaking the FAO work for Unilever), but the provider is free to supply to
other businesses. An example of a provider working for other businesses in the same
market is that of WNS Global Services whose original venture was with British Airways.
They now do ticketing for 26 major airlines around the world11.
Option 4
‘build-operate-transfer’ – full BPO
This option requires that a business outsource to external organisations utilising an
offshoring approach. This option requires a high level of governance and contracts must
9
Lacity, M (2005) Finding Success Offshore: An interview with Mary Lacity, source:
www.coinsight.com.au/article2/0,1540,1777514,00.asp
10
ibid
11
Interview with Smitha Gaikwad, Vice President, Corporate Communications, WNS Global Services (P) Ltd., Mumbai, India,
28.04.07
be framed around Service Level Agreements (SLAs) that stipulate targets for KPIs. Once
the process has started as a ‘build and operate’ model very few businesses then seek
ownership through a transfer inwards, thus moving the process from the market into the
hierarchy. This is because of the problem of local knowledge or as Lacity12 puts it, “I
don’t know who to call when the lights go out, and the Indian supplier does”.
Which geographical location to opt for?
There are several regions that are ‘hubs’ for BPO. These include:
 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
 Latin America (LatAm)
 Asia-Pacific (AsPac), and
 North America (NorAm)
Each of these regions has particular features and characteristics that make them desirable
locations for businesses seeking to make cost savings through various forms of arbitrage.
Due to language factors the regions may be further sub-divided. Thus, for example the
AsPac can be looked at in terms of South Asia and North Asia. Indeed this ‘NorthSouth’ divide cannot be overcome as China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan (North Asia) are
very different culturally from Indonesia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia and Singapore
(South Asia)13. Moreover, even within this sub-classification the ‘characteristics vary so
significantly from country to country’14 that the concept of averages does not hold much
importance. Similarly, Latin American countries primarily speak Spanish or Portuguese.
This works to the advantage of business processes that cater to the 380-million people
who speak these languages throughout the world15.
Important characteristics other than language include infrastructure development, labour
costs, levels of education characterising the labour market, regulation and compliance
costs, time zone, levels of technological adaptability16 (including communication
connectivity17) and the capacity for labour migration18.
Which vendor or service-provider?
Having made a decision on the actual preferred location, the decision then centres on
which provider or vendor to utilise. The vendors vary in size and vary in specialisation –
some undertaking IT work others HR, FAO, LPO or BPO activities. This decision can
depend on whom the vendor is already serving. For example, WNS Global Services in
Mumbai is the preferred BPO vendor to airline companies, primarily based on their
expertise in this particular field19. The actual management of the vendor-business
relationship shall be explored later.
How to manage the relocation?
The migration of work, or the transfer from one location to another, requires some
management. This issue can determine the initial success of the BPO experience for a
business. So called ‘body-to-body’ migration (involving the transfer of some staff to the
12 12
Lacity, M (2005) Finding Success Offshore: An interview with Mary Lacity, source:
www.coinsight.com.au/article2/0,1540,1777514,00.asp
13
Interview with Nalin Singh, Convergys, Singapore 18.04.07
14
KPMG Advisory (India) and NASSCOM Joint Report: Emerging Destinations, April 2007, p8
15
Ibid, p4
16
A.T. Kearney’s 2004 Offshore Location Attractiveness Index
17
KPMG Advisory (India) and NASSCOM Joint Report: Emerging Destinations, April 2007, p13
18
Interview with Lim Yen Suan, Executive Director and Head – Business Performance Services, KPMG, Singapore, 20.04.07
19
Interview with Smitha Gaikwad, Vice President, Corporate Communications, WNS Global Services (P) Ltd., Mumbai, India,
28.04.07
new vendor’s centre) can cause a short term duplication of services. However, some
downsizing will accompany the relocation20. This requires some sensitivity in how
management approach the change.
Trends in outsourcing in the Asia-Pacific Region
India is, by far, the preferred outsourcing location for global offshoring. This is true
historically21 and also currently. There are many reasons for this. India’s rank on
measures of offshore attractiveness is shown in Table 2. It ranks well ahead of any of the
other top 25 locations in AT Kearney’s study. However, China, Malaysia and Singapore
also rank in the top five22.
Nation and Rank (125)
Financial Structure23
/4
Business Environment24
/3
People Skills25
/3
Total
/10
India (1)
3.72
1.31
2.09
7.12
China (2)
Malaysia (3)
Singapore (5)
Vietnam (20)
3.32
3.09
1.47
3.65
0.93
1.77
2.63
0.70
1.36
0.73
1.36
0.35
5.61
5.59
5.46
4.70
Table 2 A summary of the ranking of key nations according to A T Kearney’s Offshore Attractiveness
index (OAI) 2004
An indication of savings to be made on labour alone can be seen in Table 3. Once again,
India ranks first.
Nation
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
Average ($US per annum)
Information Technology (IT)
Average ($US per annum)
India
China
Malaysia
Singapore
$7,779
$7,634
$16,935
$34,295
$9,896
$10,095
$21,823
$41,512
Table 3 Average Salaries of Key Offshore Destinations (2005) – BPO and ITO, Source: neoIT Offshore
and Nearshore ITO/BPO Salary Report 2006
India
Outsourcing was worth $US12bn in 2006, it having nearly half the global offshoring market. In India
the sector has an annual growth rate of 50% and employs about 250,000 people. The sector attracts
250 new employees daily26.
As can be seen from both Tables 2 and 3, India has numerous advantages over other
destinations when it comes to outsourcing. Apart from a highly educated labour force,
well developed infrastructure and regulation, India offers significant benefits arising from
20
Interview with PT Alexander, Capgemini in Bangalore, 1.5.07
KPMG Advisory (India) and NASSCOM Joint Report: Emerging Destinations, April 2007, p4
22
The AT Kearney study ranked the top 25 nations in 2004.
23
A.T. Kearney’s 2004 Offshore Location Attractiveness Index, Characteristics of the financial structure include: tax and
regulatory environment, infrastructure costs, compensation costs (wages) and exchange rates.
24
KPMG Advisory (India) and NASSCOM Joint Report: Emerging Destinations, April 2007, Characteristics of the business
environment include: security of intellectual property (software piracy rate), culture adaptability, country infrastructure (incl.
telecommunication and IT services), country risk (incl. economic and political) and geographic proximity.
25
A.T. Kearney’s 2004 Offshore Location Attractiveness Index, Characteristics of people skills include: cumulative business
process experience and skills (BPO and IT skills), labour force availability, education and language, attrition rates, literacy rates
and size of the labour market.
26
Capgemini/Indigo powerpoint slides and interview with PT Alexander 01.05.07, Bangalore, India
21
labour arbitrage. PT Alexander who runs the Capgemini centre in Bangalore believes that
cost savings are in the order of 75 per cent27 by running BPO through India. Singh28 and
others29 recognise that labour costs in India are rising quickly and that attrition rates are
very high. Rising wage costs are often quoted as leading to an erosion of arbitrage and a
reason as to why businesses are turning to Vietnam as an emerging destination. Indeed,
Singh30 gives the following example:
 Indian employees receive a 20per cent wage increment per year on a base average
annual salary of $US5,000 – thus costing an additional $US1,000 pa.
 US employees in the same industry receive a 4per cent wage increment per year
on an average base salary of $US45,000 – thus costing an additional $US1,800pa.
The gap has, he argues, widened. In terms of attrition, Indian BPO providers do
experience a very high labour turnover rate31. However, as the supply of labour outstrips
demand there is a constant inflow of highly trained graduates into the industry in India.
India is a very attractive location despite rapidly rising wages reducing the comparative
advantage and despite high labour attrition. According to Boston Consulting, the Indian
outsourcing industry helps its clients to save $1.5bn annually32.
Singapore
Singapore is a financial hub that is geographically adjacent to both Indonesia and
Malaysia, and very close to both Vietnam and the Philippines. Singapore’s main
advantage, apart from excellent infrastructure and a very stable government, is its
geographical location, ease of entry into, and movement out of, the nation, ease with
which work permits are given out (assisting with labour migration)33 high levels of
education and technology. Unlike the free market that operates with constraints on the
free movement of labour across borders, the Singaporean government makes it very easy
for labour to flow in and out. As a result it has become a financial hub. It is also a
publishing hub with a high percentage of the world’s outsourced publishing being
undertaken in Singapore. Indeed, even India outsources publishing to Singapore34.
Malaysia
Malaysia benefits from its proximity to Indonesia, Singapore and the Philippines.
Malaysia has one of the most developed infrastructures amongst the new industrialised
countries of Asia35. Average BPO salaries are in the order of $US17,000 - lower than
Singapore, but higher than India and the Philippines36. Thus there has been a net
migration of jobs offshore from Australia to Malaysia, and net migration from the
Philippines to Malaysia. In Malaysia, PWC estimates that cost reductions are in the order
of 20-30 per cent37.
Hong Kong
27
Interview with PT Alexander 01.05.07, Bangalore, India
Interview with Nalin Singh, President, Convergys, Singapore, 18.04.07
29
Interview with Smitha Gaikwad, Vice President, Corporate Communications, WNS Global Services (P) Ltd., Mumbai, India,
28.04.07
30
Interview with Nalin Singh, President, Convergys, Singapore, 18.04.07
31
Interview with Smitha Gaikwad, Vice President, Corporate Communications, WNS Global Services (P) Ltd., Mumbai, India,
28.04.07
32
Jamwal, A (2007) “Back (Office) to front”, in Mumbai Mirror, 23.4.07. p54
33
Interview with Nalin Singh, President, Convergys, Singapore, 18.04.07
34
Interview with , Desmond Chan, Marketing Manager Craft Print, Singapore, 20.04.07
35
KPMG Advisory (India) and NASSCOM Joint Report: Emerging Destinations, April 2007, p37
36
KPMG Advisory (India) and NASSCOM Joint Report: Emerging Destinations, April 2007, p37
37
Interview with Carmen Tang, PWC in Kuala Lumpur, 10.5.07
28
Offshoring is not largely prevalent in Hong Kong for various reasons, mainly historical and
cultural38. Hong Kong has not been listed in the top 25 locations in AT Kearney studies
of offshoring. Hong Kong is one of the most advanced cities in the world, enjoying
excellent communications and transport infrastructure. Wage and rental rates are high –
thus benefits from arbitrage are unlikely. Nevertheless, Capgemini in Hong Kong is an
FAO vendor for Dairy Farm – a subsidiary of the global business Jardine Matheson.
Moreover, Hong Kong has undertaken contact centre work in the past; however the
trend has been for this to shift offshore to Guangzhou in China39.
China
China has a high literacy rate of 91 per cent and hiring conditions are easier in China than
in other nations in the Asia Pacific40. It also has a fairly well developed infrastructure,
although prior to 2005 there were acute power shortages41. Average BPO salaries are
about $US7,634 pa – close to the Indian average BPO salary of $US7,779pa42. Dalian in
the north of China, and Guangzhou in the south are the main offshoring hubs within
China. Both of these locations are experiencing massive growth and investment in
infrastructure.
The benefits that are associated with use of BPO and FAO
BPO and FAO deliver significant benefits to business. Some of these benefits include:
 Simplification43
 Efficiency and cost savings44,45,46
 Increased process capability47
 Accountabilities and ‘due diligence’48
 Access to skills and resources/services lacking in-house49,50
 Focus on core business/competencies51,52
 Strategic benefits53
 Improved in-house performance54
 Forging of strategic partnership with vendor55
Challenges facing BPO (and FA) in the region
Whilst there are clear financial and hierarchical benefits from utilising BPO and FAO as
business strategy, there are also numerous challenges that must be managed by
businesses that undertake outsourcing. These challenges include:
 Language and language training
 Payback periods for use of BPO vendors
38
Interview with Allan Jackson, Senior Manager Outsourcing Services, Capgemini Business Services (Asia) Ltd, North Point,
Hong Kong, 17.05.07
39
Enterprise Innovation Report by Shivanu Shukla in www.enterpriseinnovation.net/popup_article.php?cat1=6&id=335
40
KPMG Advisory (India) and NASSCOM Joint Report: Emerging Destinations, April 2007, p34
41
ibid p35
42
ibid p35
43
Interview with PT Alexander, Capgemini in Bangalore, 1.5.07
44
ibid
45
Peisley, K (2007) “IT Outsourcing: ready to rip”, Management Today, August 2007, p31
46
KPMG International/Economist Intelligence Unit Survey (Sept 2006), KPMG Advisory, p7
47
Interview with PT Alexander, Capgemini in Bangalore, 1.5.07
48
Interview with Carmen Tang, PWC in Kuala Lumpur, 10.5.07
49
Peisley, K (2007) “IT Outsourcing: ready to rip”, Management Today, August 2007 p31
50
KPMG International/Economist Intelligence Unit Survey (Sept 2006), KPMG Advisory, p7
51
Peisley, K (2007) “IT Outsourcing: ready to rip”, Management Today, August 2007 p31
52
KPMG International/Economist Intelligence Unit Survey (Sept 2006), KPMG Advisory, p7
53
Peisley, K (2007) “IT Outsourcing: ready to rip”, Management Today, August 2007 p31
54
KPMG International/Economist Intelligence Unit Survey (Sept 2006), KPMG Advisory, p7
55
ibid







Communication through the life of BPO vendor contracts
Bureaucracy and the change from a hierarchy to the market
Business culture, knowledge transfer and change
Losses of arbitrage arising from wage inflation
IT platforms and IT support
Constraints arising from a requirement for work permits/work visas
Overall governance
How businesses are adjusting to the challenges facing successful
implementation of BPO and FAO
The BPO industry has been around for about fifteen years. In the first ten years many
global businesses made outsourcing decisions on the basis of perceptions about cost
savings alone. Typically, such decisions were framed initially around assessments about
whether to operate a captive shared services centre (SSC) or whether to outsource (BPO
and FAO). As the industry has matured many business issues have been settled. This
means that problems arising with respect to governance and contracting, language
difficulties, technological change, bureaucratic change and other issues addressed earlier
have all been identified and are negotiated in vendor-business agreements. The reduction
in length of contracts is primarily to ensure that issues arising can be addressed earlier in
the life of a BPO arrangement.
Conclusion
Whilst BPO has been a business phenomenon for over 15 years, the industry is still
growing rapidly. National and regional characteristics are enabling businesses to realise
significant gains from arbitrage. Technological and infrastructure improvements are
ensuring that the BPO field is continuing to develop and expand into non-traditionally
outsourced business activities. The use of BPO has, and continues to redefine the shape
of businesses as we have known them. Evolving in the past fifteen years from BPO,
outsourcing has expanded to include FAO, IT Outsourcing (ITO), Knowledge Process
Outsourcing (KPO)56 and Legal Process Outsourcing (LPO). This phenomenon has
changed the shape of business and with increasing global integration and rapid
technological and communications advances shall be a significant factor in global
businesses management for the foreseeable future.
Implications for the teaching of Economics, Business Studies and
Commerce
The advent of BPO has significant implications for the teaching of Economics, Business
Studies and Commerce. Each of these subject areas will be addressed in turn:
Economics
BPO raises a number of issues of relevance to the teaching of Economics. A study of
comparative advantage and specialisation should include a close study of advantages
arising as a result of differences in characteristics of labour markets. This would include
an analysis of educational levels. In addition, comparative advantage analysis would need
to include an assessment of national infrastructure including telephony, internet
coverage, transport and electricity. Other important areas for Economics includes an
56
KPO involves a large range of knowledge processes and includes contracting out research and development functions and
specialized projects such as DNA sequencing, and engineering services, as well as Legal Process Outsourcing (LPO).
assessment of FDI and its particular use for organisational change in firms realising
advantages from various forms of arbitrage.
A study of regionalism is crucial and a close assessment of the nature of the trends in
Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, North and South Asia with respect to BPO
will give insight into how MNCs and utilising WTO agreements, bilateral and multilateral
trade agreements to advantage.
Business Studies
BPO has gone largely ignored in studies of Business despite its being a major global
phenomenon affecting businesses nationally and globally. The study of management
needs to be centred on the complexity of global structures and the changing global
arrangements with respect to the outsourcing and contracting of accountability via SLAs.
Simplistic notions of business hierarchy and flat structures are very outdated.
Moreover, the factors driving BPO decisions (which can be very complex) tend to have
been construed as largely financial and could be studied from this perspective. The
effects on marketing and branding are crucial when in comes to BPO. Branding cannot
be outsourced, thus while much can be taken offshore a focus on branding is left
onshore and could be analysed as a trend affecting marketing practices globally.
Employment relations is an area strongly affected by BPO and structural changes to
labour markets need to be addressed from both a domestic worker perspective and from
the perspective of management seeking to lead global business that used BPO.
Any perceptive study of global business needs to demonstrate an awareness and deep
understanding of the Asian region generally and individual nations specifically. Notions
of ‘Asia’ are very simplistic and ignore major differences between even neighbouring
States such as Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Vietnam. Business Studies
should include a strong analysis of the Asia Pacific region and business trends, national
trends and issues arising there from for Australian enterprises.
Commerce
Commerce can also be taught from a perspective of understanding the BPO
phenomenon. Topics such as e-commerce, travel and global links are all directly relevant
to references to aspects of BPO.
References
Jamwal, A (2007) Back (Office) to front, Mumbai Mirror, Mumbai India 23.4.07 p 54
Peisley, K (2007), IT Outsourcing: ready to rip, Management Today, Australian Institute of
Management, Sydney, Australia
Udhas, P., et al (2007), Emerging Destinations for Indian IT/ITES Industry, KPMG Advisory
Services, Mumbai, India
Zarella, E and Udhas, P, and others (2007), Strategic evolution: A global survey on sourcing
today, KPMG IT Advisory, Mumbai, India
Zarella, E., et al (2006), Asian outsourcing: the next wave. A report written in co-operation with the
Economist Intelligence Unit, KPMG International and Economist Intelligence Unit, Sydney,
Australia
Zavieri, A. and Udhas, P (2006), Sourcing – the trusted frontier, KPMG Sourcing Advisory
Services, Mumbai, India
Publications (no author given)
KPMG (2007), Sourcing Advisory Services, KPMG, Sydney, Australia
KPMG (2006), Sourcing Lifecycle, KMPG Sourcing Advisory Services, Mumbai, India
Accenture (2006), The Australian CFO Agenda: Setting off towards High Performance Finance,
Sydney, Australia
Endnote
A much fuller account of the academic aspects and findings of this study (including case
studies, teacher worksheets and student materials) are available from:
www.businessprocessoutsourcing.com.au
Or by contacting the Author:
Mohan Dhall, PLC Sydney Extension Centre, Boundary Road, Croydon, NSW 2132
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