Communication (Ch 6)

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1
Communication (Ch 6)
I.
Non-verbal communication (3-17)
a. General principles
b. Elements
c. Deception
II. Communication Problems (3-20)
III. Effective Communication (3-22)
I. Non-verbal communication
A. General Principles
a. _________________________
b. Frequently conveys emotion
c. Relatively ambiguous
d. May contradict verbal message
e. Is culture-bound
B. Elements of non-verbal communication
a. personal space: zone of space surrounding a person that is felt to “belong” to that
person
1. size of personal space depends on nature of relationship and type of
situation
1. distance is regulated by social norms; varies by culture.
2. women appear to have ____________ personal spaces than men.
3. people of similar status tend to stand closer together.
4. invasion of personal space elicits a variety of reactions.
b. facial expressions
1. generally ________________________
1. Ekman and colleagues identified six emotions associated with
distinct facial expressions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness,
surprise
2
2. some recognized universally; many vary culturally
3. People __________ regulate facial expressions to deceive others
c. eye contact
1. __________________ is most meaningful
1. high levels associated with ___________________
2. high levels associated with effective social skills, credibility
2. gaze communicates intensity, not positivity or negativity
3. culture affects patterns of eye contact
4. gender and racial differences have been found in the US.
d. body language
1. _____________: the study of communication through body movements
2. provides information about person’s _________________
3. body posture also conveys information:
1. “open” position conveys feeling of relaxation
2. leaning toward another person indicates interest, positive attitude
3. “closed” position associated with lower status
e. _________________________: all vocal cues other than the content of the verbal
message itself
1. cues include intensity, speed and rhythm of speech
2. aspects of vocalization can communicate emotions
1. loud vocalization often indicates anger
2. high pitch may indicate anxiety
C. Detecting deception
a. Possible, but not easy
b. Vocal cues: ____________________________________________
c. Visual cues: ____________________________________________
d. Liars nervously touch themselves more than normal
e. Use of polygraph: device that records fluctuations in physiological arousal as a
person answers questions.
3
1. called a lie detector, really an emotion detector
2. monitors _____________________ (heart rate, blood pressure,
respiration rate, persperation)
3. Research indicates inaccuracy 1/3 to ¼ of time
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