Chapter 19 Packet (guided reading note sheets)

Chapter 19-1
8th US History
Second Industrial Revolution
(Pages 614-618)
1. What was the Second Industrial Revolution and when did it occur?
2. How did Henry Bessemer change the way steel was made? What was the name of his process?
3. How many tons of steel was produced in 1870? 1879?
4. How did this new steel process change railway construction?
5. How did manufacturers and farmers use the railroads?
6. What city did the book say grew rapidly because of increasing use of the railways?
7. How did railways increase western growth?
8. How did the use of oil change in the 1850s? What could oil now be used for?
9. How did Edwin L. Drake change the oil industry in 1859?
10. What were oil prospectors called? Where did they originally begin to drill for oil?
11. Why did oil companies build refineries?
12. Who was Thomas Edison?
13. What is a patent?
14. When did Edison create the electric light bulb?
15. Why were Edison’s electric plants really only useful in central cities?
16. How did George Westinghouse change how the United States used electricity?
17. What important advancement in the use of telegraphs was achieved in 1866?
18. What important invention was created in March of 1876? Who was the inventor?
19. In 1880 how many telephones were there? 1900?
20. What invention was created in 1893? Who were its inventors?
21. What did Henry Ford do for the automobile industry?
22. Who were Wilbur and Orville Wright? What did they do on December 17, 1903?
Chapter 19-2
8th US History
Big Business
(Pages 619-622)
1. Define corporation.
2. How were investors rewarded in successful corporations?
3. What job does a board of directors have in a corporation?
4. List some advantages corporations had over earlier business forms.
5. How many shares were being traded on the New York Stock Exchange by 1900?
6. Where was Andrew Carnegie born?
7. What did Carnegie begin to focus his efforts on in 1873?
8. What milestone did Carnegie’s mills reach in 1901?
9. What is vertical integration?
10. What types of businesses did Carnegie acquire to help lower production cost?
11. How old was John D. Rockefeller when he decided to start an oil refining company?
12. How long did it take Rockefeller to make his Standard Oil Company the country’s largest oil refiner?
13. What is horizontal integration?
14. What percentage of U.S. oil refineries did Rockefeller control by 1880?
15. What is a trust?
16. Who was Leland Stanford? What was his belief about industry?
17. What is social Darwinism?
18. How much money did Carnegie give to charities?
19. How did large corporations take advantage of smaller corporations?
20. What is a monopoly? Why did critics believe that this was bad in a free market economy?
21. What was the Sherman Antitrust Act?
22. What was the biggest problem with the Sherman Antitrust Act?
Chapter 19-3
8th US History
Industrial Workers
(Pages 624-627)
1. How were working conditions on the decline in factories?
2. What is specialization?
3. Who was Frederick W. Taylor? What did he encourage managers to do?
4. What were the Knights of Labor? When was it founded?
5. What rights did the Knights of Labor fight for?
6. Who was Terence V. Powderly?
7. What does AFL stand for? Who founded it?
8. How was the AFL different from the Knights of Labor?
9. What is collective bargaining?
10. Who was May Harris Jones? List specific things she did?
11. Where was the first major labor strike? When did it begin?
12. Why did workers in Chicago go on strike? What happened to two strikers?
13. What occurred the next day in the Haymarket riot?
14. How many people were arrested in the aftermath of the Haymarket riots? What was ironic about some
of the arrests that were made?
15. What happened to membership in the Knights of Labor after the riots?
16. What was the Homestead strike about? Who was the owner of the Homestead plant? Where was the
Homestead plant found?
17. How did the Homestead Company respond to the strikers? What occurred on July 6th, 1892?
18. What was the outcome of the strike? In other words which side won?
19. Where was the Pullman Palace Car Company located?
20. What did the Pullman Company do in 1893?
21. What occurred on May 11, 1894?
22. What was President Cleveland’s response to the strike?
23. Overall, did labor unions or business owners have more success in the strikes listed in this section?