Chapter 19, Section 3 Industrial Workers Decline of Working


Chapter 19, Section 3 Industrial Workers

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Decline of Working Conditions

Machines run by unskilled workers were eliminating the jobs of many skilled craftspeople Low paid workers could be easily replaced Specialization made workers tired, bored and more likely to be injured


Knights of Labor


GOSPEL OF THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR: “We work not selfishly alone, but extend the hand of fellowship to all mankind” -- Terence Powderly

• • • • • Who? – members included all factory workers (skilled and unskilled); founded by Terence Powderly What? – first national labor union which pushed for equal work, end to child labor, and govt. regulation of trusts When? – 1870s Where? – US (cities) Why important? – first national attempt to improve working conditions for industrial workers

American Federation of Labor

• • • • • Who? – members included skilled workers only; founded by Samuel Gompers What? – early national labor union that linked smaller crafts unions for different trades together into one national organization When? – late 1800s Where? – US (cities) Why Important? – tried to get skilled workers better working conditions, hours, and working conditions

Collective Bargaining

• • • • • Who? – workers and management What? – workers get to negotiate with management as a group instead of individually to hopefully improve their working conditions When? – began in late 1800s Where? – US Why Important? –

Private sector workers have this right. Should public workers, too?

Mary Harris Jones

• • • • She was an Irish immigrant who became a well-known speaker for workers rights She was a dressmaker and after her husband and three children died of yellow fever and her workshop burned down she became an organizer for the Knights of Labor Later she helped organize miners strikes and educate workers She gained the nickname “Mother Jones” when she was still organizing workers well into her 60s

Haymarket Riot

• • • • • • Workers at the McCormack Harvester Company in Chicago went on strike for an 8 hour day 2 strikers were killed by police at the strike The next day a workers rally was held to support the strike at Haymarket Square A bomb exploded killing some police officers The police opened fire on the people at the rally People connected this kind of labor to the Knights of Labor, and membership in that union sharply declined

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Homestead Strike

Workers at Andrew Carnegie’s steel mill at Homestead, PA protested a company plan to buy new machinery to cut jobs The company hired strikebreakers to take the place of striking workers The workers seized the plant and shot at the Pinkerton agents hired to take back the plant The Governor of PA called in the state militia to restore order Fighting took place for months, but the union was defeated

Pullman Strike

• • • • • Workers in the company town for George Pullman’s railroad car factory went on strike They were protesting the lay off of half of the workers and the lowering of pay for the remaining workers Workers stopped traffic on railroad lines Federal courts ordered workers to return to their jobs, but they refused President Grover Cleveland sent federal troops to Chicago to stop the strike