STUDY GUIDE – MRS. PAVLIN’S ADVANCED BIOLOGY FINAL Format: Scantron (~ 58%): Multiple Choice, Matching, Diagram Analysis, and Scientific Reading Free Response (~ 25%): Genetics Problem, Short Answer Questions, and Hardy-Weinberg Problem Lab Practical (~ 17%): Dichotomous Key Classification, Microscope Slides, and Chi-Square Analysis ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Topics: Part 1 – (Cell Reproduction) Chapter 10 – Cell Growth and Division Cell Cycle, Mitosis (function and phases), Cytokinesis (plant & animal), and Chromosome Structure. Part 2 – (Genetics) Chapter 11 – Introduction to Genetics Meiosis (function and phases), Homologous Chromosomes, Gametes, Zygote, Chromosome Number (haploid & diploid), Mendel’s Laws, Phenotype/Genotype, Homozygous/Heterozygous, Dominant and Recessive Traits, Punnett Squares, Expected Ratios, Test Crosses, Monohybrid Crosses, Dihybrid Crosses & Law of Independent Assortment, Generations (P, F1, F2), Genes, Alleles, Law of Probability and Product Rule, Incomplete Dominance, Codominance, ABO blood groups, Multiple Alleles, and Polygenic Traits. Chapter 12 – DNA and RNA Scientists (Griffith, Avery, Hershey & Chase, Watson & Crick), DNA Structure, Base Pairing Rules, DNA Replication, RNA (types, structure & function), Transcription, RNA splicing (introns & exons), Translation, Genetic Code (DNA triplets, mRNA codons, tRNA anticodons), Chromosome Mutations, Gene Mutations (point & frameshift), and Environmental Influence. Chapter 13 – Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering, Recombinant DNA, Plasmids, Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Fragments (RFLPs), Gel Electrophoresis, and DNA fingerprinting. Chapter 14 – The Human Genome Pedigrees, Autosomal Genetic Disorders, Sex-linked Disorders, Chromosomal Disorders, Karyotypes, Fetal Tests (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, fetoscopy), Sex Chromosomes, Sex-Linked Traits and Disorders, Gene Linkage, Crossing-over, Polygenic Traits, and Human Genome Project. Part 3 (Evolution) Chapter 15 – Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin, Natural Selection, Adaptations, Evidence of Evolution (fossils, homologous structures, analogous structures, vestigial structures), and Lamarck’s Theories. Chapter 16 – Evolution of Populations Microevolution, Gene Pool, Population Genetics, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Model (conditions & calculations), Selection Outcomes (stabilizing, directional, disruptive), and Speciation. Chapter 17 – The History of Life Patterns in Evolution, Types of Evolution (convergent & divergent), Coevolution, Adaptive Radiation, and Rates of Evolution. Chapter 18 – Classification of Living Things Taxonomy, Carolus Linnaeus, Binomial Nomenclature, Hierarchy (D.K.P.C.O.F.G.S.), Species Definition, Scientific Names, Phylogeny, Characteristics of the Kingdoms, and Dichotomous Keys. Part 4 (Ecology) Chapter 3 – The Biosphere Ecological Levels (Organisms, Populations, Communities, Ecosystems, Biomes, Biosphere), Food Webs (Producers Consumers, Decomposers), Biomass Pyramid, Trophic Levels, and Cycles of Matter. Chapter 4 – Ecosystems and Communities Biotic Factors, Abiotic Factors, Niche, Habitat, Competition, Predation, Symbiosis (parasitism, commensalism, mutualism), Features of Aquatic Biomes (Freshwater & Marine), Features of Terrestrial Biomes (Forests, Grasslands, Tundra, Desert), and Ecological Succession.