Scientific Method Study Guide Answers

Scientific Method Study Guide Answers
1. What is an observation?
 Things we observe around us using our 5 senses, technology and
2. What are 2 types of observations? (give definition of each type)
 Qualitative – describes something
 Quantitative – measures something
3. How are observations made? (3 types)
 5 senses
 technology
 experiences
4. Why are observations made?
 To communicate
5. What is a hypothesis?
 A special kind of prediction that makes a guess of how one variable
will affect a second variable
6. How is a hypothesis written?
 An “if”…”then” statement The “if” is followed by the IV, the “then”
is followed by the DV
7. What are the steps for writing a hypothesis?
 Identify the variables
 Identify a pair of variables that could be logically related
 Identify the independent and dependent variables
 Write the hypothesis using this formula:
 If the [independent variable] increases or decreases, then the
[dependent variable] will increase or decrease
8. Why do we use a hypothesis?
 because they give an exact focus for an experiment
9. Be able to write a hypothesis from a problem or question.
 (see controlling variables packet for examples)
10. What are inferences?
 Inferences are based on observations and are explanations of what we
11. Why do we make inferences?
 helps us understand what’s going on around us.
12. Be able to write an inference from an observation
 Use packet for examples
13. What are 2 types of research questions (name and definition of both)
 Type one research question – focuses on one variable
 Type two research question – focuses on a relationship between two
14. What are variables?
 Variables are factors, conditions and/or relationships that can change
or be changed in an event or system.
15. List and give a definition for each type of variable (3 types)
 The independent variable is the variable you purposely change.
 The dependent variable is the variable that is being observed, which
changes in response to the independent variable.
 The variables that are not changed are called controlled variables.
16. Be able to identify variables (look at packets for help)
17. Why do you need to organize data?
 Organizing Data helps you interpret what has been observed.
18. What is data interpretation?
 Data interpretation = making sense of observations
19. How is data organized?
 Data tables and charts
20. What visual image is used to display data?
 Graphs
21. How do you write a data table?
 IV data goes on the left side, DV data goes on the right side
22. What do graphs do?
 Graphs convert data sets into pictures
23. What are the rules for graphing?
 Always write a title at the top of the page for your graph
 Decide if you need a line or bar graph
24. How do you decide if you use a line or bar graph?
 Way to decide: If IV represents passage of time or measurement, you
need a line graph
 If IV is types of things, you need a bar graph
25. Know which axis the IV and DV go on a graph
 Y axis goes up and down
 X axis is horizontal
 Y axis contains the Dependent variable data
 X axis contains the Independent variable data
26. Describe how to use increments on a graph
 Increments for x axis and y axis can be numbered differently, but the
numbering progression must be consistent
 Look at the range for your data and set up the increments for each
27. Explain how to make a bar graph
 Number the increments on the Y axis only
 Write the categories for the IV on the X axis
 Decide how wide each bar should be
 The height of each bar should correspond with the number counted
on the Y axis
28. Explain how to make a line graph
 Plot your data
 The matched pair (IV,DV) represents the coordinates for one point on
the graph line.
 Connect the points on the line graph
Steps of the Scientific Method and Lab Write Up:
1. Title – Reflects purpose of the lab
2. Statement of the problem – Purpose of the experiment
3. Hypothesis – An educated guess/prediction for the outcome of the
experiment. Never us personal pronouns like “I” “he” “she” etc.
4. Procedure – All materials and steps for the experiment
5. Results – Data and results from experiment. Includes data tables and graphs
6. Conclusion – Hypothesis is re-stated and tells if it was correct or incorrect.
Analyze the data in this step.