CARBOHYDRATES (Polysaccharides) NUCLEIC ACIDS

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CARBOHYDRATES
(Polysaccharides )
Building block:
MONOSACCHARIDES
NUCLEIC ACIDS
(Polynucleotides)
Building block:
NUCLEOTIDE =
Phosphate + Sugar +
Nitrogen Base
LIPIDS (FATS)
(Triacylglycerols)
Building block:
GLYCEROL +FATTY ACIDS
Fatty Acids - saturated
unsaturated
Ex. glucose
FUNCTIONS:
Energy Storage glycogen (animals)
starch (plants)
Structural cellulose
FUNCTIONS:
Energy Storage - Fats
Protection - Waxes
Messengers - Steroids
Structural - Membranes
FUNCTIONS:
Information Storage
- DNA & RNA
Energy Transfer
- ATP
In Membranes:
Phospholipids One fatty acid is
replaced with a
phosphate group
• All of the above use glucose as
the building block - only the
arrangement is different
Cell/Cell Recognition and
Communication (oligomers)
Amphipathic:
have hydrophobic &
hydrophillic
regions
PROTEINS
(Polypeptides)
Levels of Protein Structure:
Primary (10 ) = Covalently bonded polymers of amino acids
Secondary (20 ) = á helix or â sheet configurations
•
H-bonds between carboxyl-O of one aa and the amino-H of a
non-adjacent aa.
Tertiary (30 ) = sum total or all á helix and/or â sheet configurations
• Hydrophobic interactions, H-bonds, ionic bonds, and covalent
bonds (disulfide bridges) between R-groups
Quaternary (40 ) = Protein subunits combine to form single multisubunit protein
Building block: AMINO ACID
! 20 different amino acids
FUNCTIONS:
Structures: eg. Collagen
Enzymes
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