The Reformation Other Associated topics and tasks: Readings: Martin Luther’s thesis Image Analysis: John Tetzel Witchcraft: The Burning Times Documentary Malleus Malifaciarum Primary source Witchcraft Trial Renaissance ! The cultural and intellectual movement of the Renaissance celebrated the achievement and ability of people. As such, people no longer gave all the glory to God, which meant that art, literature and writing also became more secular. This would lay the foundations of the Reformation. Humanism ! An outlook or system of thought attaching prime important to human rather than divine supernatural powers. Part of the Renaissance culture movement, humanism beliefs stress the goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems. Christian Humanism ! Christian humanists believed in the ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves and thought that through the reading of classical and christian sources, they could instill an inner piety or an inward religious feeling that would bring about a reform of the church and society. Johannes Guttenburg ! Accredited with inventing movable type in the 15th century. In the past traditional printing was done by monks but due to the increase in literacy, a new way to produce text was needed. He printed 200 bibles b/w 1452-1453. It is hard to imagine the spread of the Reformation without the printing press. Black Death ! One of the most devastating pandemics in human history that killed an estimated 72-200 million ppl in Europe. Faith in the church was lost as a result because people felt that the clergy had done a poor job dealing with the plague. (AntiClericalism=against the clergy) Pietism ! The notion of direct relationships b/w individuals and God, thereby reducing the importance of church hierarchy in Rome. This was another church problem on the eve of the Reformation. Clergy ! Clergy were poorly educated and could not properly defend church against attacks. Clergy also made it a bad habit of purchasing church ofﬁﾞces (Simony) which meant they had multiple positions and were thus unable to handle their ﬂﾟocks. John Wycliffe ! One of the ‘ﬁﾞrst’ reformers who questioned the wealth of the church and practices. He urged people to read the bible and interpret it themselves. He translated bible into English. Indulgences ! A release from the temporal penalty given by priests to individuals who confessed their sins. Buying an indulgence could release the buyer from Purgatory. But it became more common b/c the money was then used to fund projects or to ﬁﾞll the treasury. "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs" Martin Luther ! A German monk who challenged the hierarchy of the Church. He believed that the church was laden with corruption. He believed that a person’s faith will guarantee salvation. He set in motion a sequence of revolution & conﬂﾟict that would reshape western Civilization. 95 Theses ! Martin Luther turned on the church, attacking the practice of indulgences and popes. He posted his ‘grievances’ in 95 thesis and posted them on the church of Wittenburg in 1517. These ideas spread like wildﬁﾞre especially with the help of the printing press. Heretic ! Heresy was a treason against GOd and the worst offense in the Catholic church. Anyone who didn’t heed the values and religion of the Roman Catholic Church was charged of being a Heretic and could be burned, hung or executed by other means. Pope Leo X ! A Medici Pope who was a great patron of the arts and whose extravagant renovation project (Vatican) and other works would require more money from indulgences. He issued a Papal Bull (decree) where he demanded that Luther recant his ideas & writings or else be burnt as a Heretic. Excommunication ! Being expelled from the church. Luther was excommunicated in 1521 after he burned Pope Leo’s papal bull as a form of public protest. Charles V ! Inherited a vast empire from his parents and was the riches and most powerful person during the time. As Holy Roman Emperor he would face many challenges, especially the Reformation. He would fail to stop it. Diet of Worms ! In 1521 Luther was ordered to recant his views before the Diet (meeting of German nobility)but he refused. Charles V was at the Diet and instead of burning Luther to death, he banned him. (Charles was too busy with wars against the Ottoman Empire). John Calvin ! Accredited with ‘saving the reformation’ through the second generation of Reformers. He spread Calvinism in France but then moved to Switzerland where there were less persecutions. Huguenots ! Calvinists in France were known as Huguenots and had little/no rights. They will be severely persecuted and are important later in French history. English Reformation ! Was not religious but political, however, religion was at the core of the political problem. England’s ties with Rome were severed by Henry VIII. Henry VIII ! He was titled as ‘the defender of faith’ by the Pope but this would be short lived since Henry wanted to end his marriage to Catherine of Aaragon. This brought him at odds with the pope. He split from the Church 1529 and so did England. Catharine of Aaragon ! The CATHOLIC wife of Henry VIII who was blamed for not producing a male heir. She and Henry had a daughter: Mary. Henry thought he was being punished for marrying Catherine who was also his dead brother’s wife. She was the aunt of Charles V :O! Anne Boleyn ! Henry fell in love with Anne but she refused to sleep with him unless he made her Queen. She and Henry were secretly married, and she is known to have sparked Henry’s need to break with Church. She had Protestant convictions. Henry and Anne had a daughter, Elizabeth, but Anne was beheaded when she was unable to produce a male heir. Act of Supremacy ! Finalized the English Reformation as it ﬁﾞnally acknowledged the King of England as the Supreme Head of the Church of England in 1534. Counter Reformation ! The Catholic church attempted to reform as a way of combatting the attacks against the Catholic Church. The Church limited the selling of Church ofﬁﾞces and began a system of creating seminaries as a way of educating a poor clergy. However, they did not alter any point on theological practices (which were attacked by reformers). Jesuits ! The society of the Jesus organized by Ignatius Loyola whose work, Spiritual Practices, promoted severe, regular spiritual practice leading to devotion to God + Church. The pope recognized the Jesuits and they became well trained individuals who recruited others and stabilized the Church. They regarded themselves as army of the Church.