The Protestant Reformation

The Reformation
Other Associated topics and tasks:
Readings: Martin Luther’s thesis
Image Analysis: John Tetzel
Witchcraft: The Burning Times Documentary
Malleus Malifaciarum Primary source
Witchcraft Trial
The cultural and intellectual movement of the
Renaissance celebrated the achievement and ability
of people. As such, people no longer gave all the
glory to God, which meant that art, literature and
writing also became more secular. This would lay
the foundations of the Reformation.
An outlook or system of thought attaching
prime important to human rather than divine
supernatural powers. Part of the Renaissance
culture movement, humanism beliefs stress
the goodness of human beings, emphasize
common human needs, and seek solely
rational ways of solving human problems.
Christian Humanism
Christian humanists believed in the ability
of human beings to reason and improve
themselves and thought that through the
reading of classical and christian sources,
they could instill an inner piety or an
inward religious feeling that would bring
about a reform of the church and society.
Johannes Guttenburg
Accredited with inventing movable type in
the 15th century. In the past traditional
printing was done by monks but due to the
increase in literacy, a new way to produce
text was needed. He printed 200 bibles b/w
1452-1453. It is hard to imagine the spread
of the Reformation without the printing
Black Death
One of the most devastating
pandemics in human history that
killed an estimated 72-200 million
ppl in Europe. Faith in the
church was lost as a result
because people felt that the
clergy had done a poor job
dealing with the plague. (AntiClericalism=against the clergy)
The notion of direct relationships b/w
individuals and God, thereby reducing the
importance of church hierarchy in Rome.
This was another church problem on the
eve of the Reformation.
Clergy were poorly educated and could not
properly defend church against attacks.
Clergy also made it a bad habit of
purchasing church offi゙ces (Simony) which
meant they had multiple positions and
were thus unable to handle their fl゚ocks.
John Wycliffe
One of the ‘fi゙rst’ reformers who questioned
the wealth of the church and practices. He
urged people to read the bible and interpret
it themselves. He translated bible into
A release from the temporal penalty given
by priests to individuals who confessed
their sins. Buying an indulgence could
release the buyer from Purgatory. But it
became more common b/c the money was
then used to fund projects or to fi゙ll the
"As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs"
Martin Luther
A German monk who challenged the
hierarchy of the Church. He believed that
the church was laden with corruption. He
believed that a person’s faith will
guarantee salvation. He set in motion a
sequence of revolution & confl゚ict that
would reshape western Civilization.
95 Theses
Martin Luther turned on the church,
attacking the practice of indulgences and
popes. He posted his ‘grievances’ in 95
thesis and posted them on the church of
Wittenburg in 1517. These ideas spread like
wildfi゙re especially with the help of the
printing press.
Heresy was a treason against GOd and the
worst offense in the Catholic church.
Anyone who didn’t heed the values and
religion of the Roman Catholic Church was
charged of being a Heretic and could be
burned, hung or executed by other means.
Pope Leo X
A Medici Pope who was a great patron of
the arts and whose extravagant renovation
project (Vatican) and other works would
require more money from indulgences. He
issued a Papal Bull (decree) where he
demanded that Luther recant his ideas &
writings or else be burnt as a Heretic.
Being expelled from the church. Luther was
excommunicated in 1521 after he burned
Pope Leo’s papal bull as a form of public
Charles V
Inherited a vast empire from his parents
and was the riches and most powerful
person during the time. As Holy Roman
Emperor he would face many challenges,
especially the Reformation. He would fail
to stop it.
Diet of Worms
In 1521 Luther was ordered to recant his
views before the Diet (meeting of German
nobility)but he refused. Charles V was at
the Diet and instead of burning Luther to
death, he banned him. (Charles was too
busy with wars against the Ottoman
John Calvin
Accredited with ‘saving the reformation’
through the second generation of
Reformers. He spread Calvinism in France
but then moved to Switzerland where there
were less persecutions.
Calvinists in France were known as
Huguenots and had little/no rights. They
will be severely persecuted and are
important later in French history.
English Reformation
Was not religious but political, however,
religion was at the core of the political
problem. England’s ties with Rome were
severed by Henry VIII.
Henry VIII
He was titled as ‘the defender of
faith’ by the Pope but this would
be short lived since Henry wanted
to end his marriage to Catherine
of Aaragon. This brought him at
odds with the pope. He split from
the Church 1529 and so did
Catharine of Aaragon
The CATHOLIC wife of Henry VIII
who was blamed for not producing
a male heir. She and Henry had a
daughter: Mary. Henry thought he
was being punished for marrying
Catherine who was also his dead
brother’s wife. She was the aunt of
Charles V :O!
Anne Boleyn
Henry fell in love with Anne but she refused
to sleep with him unless he made her Queen.
She and Henry were secretly married, and
she is known to have sparked Henry’s need
to break with Church. She had Protestant
convictions. Henry and Anne had a
daughter, Elizabeth, but Anne was beheaded
when she was unable to produce a male heir.
Act of Supremacy
Finalized the English Reformation as it
fi゙nally acknowledged the King of England
as the Supreme Head of the Church of
England in 1534.
Counter Reformation
The Catholic church attempted to reform as
a way of combatting the attacks against the
Catholic Church. The Church limited the
selling of Church offi゙ces and began a
system of creating seminaries as a way of
educating a poor clergy. However, they did
not alter any point on theological practices
(which were attacked by reformers).
The society of the Jesus organized by Ignatius
Loyola whose work, Spiritual Practices,
promoted severe, regular spiritual practice
leading to devotion to God + Church. The
pope recognized the Jesuits and they became
well trained individuals who recruited others
and stabilized the Church. They regarded
themselves as army of the Church.