Stolen from Coach Andrade Two major movements influenced the thought and literature of this period: The Renaissance, mean “rebirth” was characterized by innovations in art, science, and exploration, and a rediscovery of long-neglected classical works. Most of the works were Italian. This movement began in Italy and spread northward to the rest of Europe. 1. 2. The Renaissance “rebirth” sought to revive the learning of the Ancient Greece and Rome. It was a secular movement that encouraged voyages of discovery and emphasized human aspiration. For Europeans: The world got bigger. Discovery of new parts of the globe. Polish scientist, Copernicus, proposed that the sun and not the Earth was the center of the solar system. Two scholars. Erasmus , an Italian scholar, attempted to reform the Catholic Church. In Germany, theologian Martin Luther , initiated a movement called the Reformation. This led to Protestantism, where Luther stressed the Bible, rather than the Pope, as a source of authority and the importance of faith for salvation. TWO major ENGLISH works of this period are Shakespeare’s plays (a product of the Renaissance)and The KING JAMES BIBLE.(a product of the Reformation.) a. b. c. Reformation led to a Religious divisions in Europe. Other Discoveries : 3 Renaissance inventions that changed the world. Pendulum Microscope Telescope 1. 2. 3. Renaissance scholars turned to classical authors for inspiration, and Reformation thinkers tried to return the Catholic Church to its original principals. Renaissance ideas stimulated literacy, artistic, and scientific achievements in England. Influenced by the Reformation, England became a Protestant country. English events must be seen against the backdrop of these two wider European movements-and English history certainly was Dramatic!!! The Tudor reign begins, consisted of 5 monarchs, grandfather, father and 3 children. In 1485, Henry Tudor or Henry VII, brought peace and stability to England. His Son, Henry VIII, inherited this strong, stable country. After a while, the Drama began. Henry was married to Catherine of Aragorn who produced a daughter. (Mary) • In 1534, Wanted a divorce and the Church would not grant him one, so he broke away from the Catholic Church. • His church was a Protestant church of England or the Anglican Church. • Granted himself the divorce and married Anne Boleyn. Had a daughter Elizabeth. 3rd wife was Jane Seymour (son was Edward the 6th) , 4th was Anne of Cleves (married only 6 months-mutual divorce), 5th was Catherine Howard (beheaded for adultery) , and 6th was Catherine Parr. The fates of these women are summarized in a little jingle of the time: “Divorced, beheaded, died, Divorced, beheaded, survived.” Despite his messy home life, Henry VIII is famous for: *Creation of the Royal Navy. Became the greatest and most powerful fleet in the world. *Put a stop to foreign invasions. *England started to spread its influence, language, culture to the rest of the world. *He wrote poetry, played many different musical instruments. He was a champion athlete, hunter, and patronized new humanistic learning. Edward was 9 , when he became King. He died 6 years later of tuberculosis. He was somewhat intelligent but rather sickly his entire life. IN reality, he never really ruled. Other men in charge actually ruled the country at that time. *Remember, she was the oldest daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragorn. She was very Catholic. She was determined to avenge the wrongs done to her mother. *She temporarily restored the Pope’s power in England and hunted down Protestants. *She made some errors. One was killing 300 Protestants at one time and then marrying a Spanish prince. *Luckily, she died of fever only 5 years into her reign. *Considered England’s greatest Monarch. She was very successful in her endeavors. What Did She Do? • She restored law and order to a kingdom that was torn apart by religious war. • She reestablished the Church of England and rejected the Pope’s authority. • She pretended to want to marry certain suitors in order to keep peace and treaties. Survived many plots against her life. Was the leader when the Spanish Armada was defeated off the coast of England. She was a beloved symbol of peace and source of inspiration to her people. She patronized the arts, theater, including William Shakespeare’s acting group.