Reformation Guided Notes

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World History: Lesson 16: Protestant Reformation
Criticisms of the Church
Many thought the Pope was too involved in politics, government, and wars instead of God and the Church. Many also
objected to how well-off the Pope lived and spent money on art and buildings when there were so many suffering
people. Many objected to Simony and the selling of indulgences
Simony: to purchase ($ )of a Church position or “job”
Indulgences: The Church sold “forgiveness” or indulgences
rather than earning it based on merit (job performance)
to those who wanted forgiveness as well as a chance to go
Result-job goes to the one with the most $
to heaven.
Luther's 95 theses
Martin Luther
1517- Nailed his complaints (95 these) to the church door criticizing the church and the selling of
indulgences, particularly “after the fact” indulgences for dead relatives. No biblical basis.
The printing press
Invented by Guttenburg. Luther’s ideas spread quickly
The Edict of Worms
1521-Pope declares Luther a heretic and a criminal, but Luther managed to hide with the help of
friends and followers
Luther's beliefs
about entering
Heaven
Access to God
The Bible
The Pope
Education
Church services
Prayer to Virgin
Mary & Saints
Marriage of Priests
Support of German
nobles
Support of German
peasants
Luther wanted the Bible to be printed in languages other than Latin so all could read it and
understand it.
Predestination:
How was France affected by the Reformation?1562-1598 French Wars of Religion fought between Catholics and
Protestants(Huguenots) for control of France. (to determine the religion of a nation rather than the Catholic Church
What was French King Henry IV's Edict of Nantes? Granted religious freedom to Protestants
King Henry VIII
England's Tudor Dynasty & The Reformation
Was Catholic but Queen could not give him a son (heir), so he asked the Pope for a divorce. The
Pope refused. Henry declared himself head of the Church of England, claiming Church land. Got a
divorce. Had 2 girls and one boy
King Edward VI
Son of Henry. King at 9, died at 15
Queen Mary I
Daughter of Henry and first Queen, Catherine of Aragon. Called Bloody Mary because she executed
many Protestants. Ruled for 5 years and died.
Queen Elizabeth I
Daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, ruled for 45 years. Made England strong.
Counter-Reformation: Catholic Church created the Inquisition; purpose was to find heretics and secret Jews. Church
also created Jesuits (special priests) who spread Catholicism (Catholic faith)
Council of Trent: the Catholic council that met for 20 years to decide reforms for the Church
Holy Roman Empire- consisted of large amount of Europe, including, Kingdoms of Italy, France, and Germany. Emperor
elected by these Kingdoms to rule. So many ethnic groups…inevitable would lead to conflict.
Thirty-Years War-1618-1648-Began in Bohemia between Protestants and Catholics, but eventually became about land
and political power. Peace of Westphalia ended this war; decided each nation could decide religion of its territories, not
the Catholic Church or the HRE. Created the German state.
Other Suffering Due to Reformation:Between 1450-1750 many people convicted of witchcraft, magic, devil worship and
killed by Protestants and Catholics. Jews also targeted.