World History: Lesson 16: Protestant Reformation Criticisms of the Church Many thought the Pope was too involved in politics, government, and wars instead of God and the Church. Many also objected to how well-off the Pope lived and spent money on art and buildings when there were so many suffering people. Many objected to Simony and the selling of indulgences Simony: to purchase ($ )of a Church position or “job” Indulgences: The Church sold “forgiveness” or indulgences rather than earning it based on merit (job performance) to those who wanted forgiveness as well as a chance to go Result-job goes to the one with the most $ to heaven. Luther's 95 theses Martin Luther 1517- Nailed his complaints (95 these) to the church door criticizing the church and the selling of indulgences, particularly “after the fact” indulgences for dead relatives. No biblical basis. The printing press Invented by Guttenburg. Luther’s ideas spread quickly The Edict of Worms 1521-Pope declares Luther a heretic and a criminal, but Luther managed to hide with the help of friends and followers Luther's beliefs about entering Heaven Access to God The Bible The Pope Education Church services Prayer to Virgin Mary & Saints Marriage of Priests Support of German nobles Support of German peasants Luther wanted the Bible to be printed in languages other than Latin so all could read it and understand it. Predestination: How was France affected by the Reformation?1562-1598 French Wars of Religion fought between Catholics and Protestants(Huguenots) for control of France. (to determine the religion of a nation rather than the Catholic Church What was French King Henry IV's Edict of Nantes? Granted religious freedom to Protestants King Henry VIII England's Tudor Dynasty & The Reformation Was Catholic but Queen could not give him a son (heir), so he asked the Pope for a divorce. The Pope refused. Henry declared himself head of the Church of England, claiming Church land. Got a divorce. Had 2 girls and one boy King Edward VI Son of Henry. King at 9, died at 15 Queen Mary I Daughter of Henry and first Queen, Catherine of Aragon. Called Bloody Mary because she executed many Protestants. Ruled for 5 years and died. Queen Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, ruled for 45 years. Made England strong. Counter-Reformation: Catholic Church created the Inquisition; purpose was to find heretics and secret Jews. Church also created Jesuits (special priests) who spread Catholicism (Catholic faith) Council of Trent: the Catholic council that met for 20 years to decide reforms for the Church Holy Roman Empire- consisted of large amount of Europe, including, Kingdoms of Italy, France, and Germany. Emperor elected by these Kingdoms to rule. So many ethnic groups…inevitable would lead to conflict. Thirty-Years War-1618-1648-Began in Bohemia between Protestants and Catholics, but eventually became about land and political power. Peace of Westphalia ended this war; decided each nation could decide religion of its territories, not the Catholic Church or the HRE. Created the German state. Other Suffering Due to Reformation:Between 1450-1750 many people convicted of witchcraft, magic, devil worship and killed by Protestants and Catholics. Jews also targeted.