Chapter 1 - Introduction to Earth Science Test Review Questions. On the Ch 1 test you will be expected to know and discuss answers to the following questions. Section 1 – What is science? Explain the three main skills that scientists use. List the process steps of scientific inquiry. In what step of scientific inquiry does the scientist test the hypothesis? Section 2 – Studying Earth What are the four ‘spheres’ that make upthe Earth System? Give an example of how one of the spheres of the earth system can affect at least one of the other spheres. List three different ways that energy can be transferred from one location to another? In which direction doe heat flow between two objects of different temperatures? What are the three branches of Earth Science? Section 3 – Exploring Earth’s Surface What is topography? What is relief? How does it differ from elevation? What are the three main types of landform? Place these feature in order from smallest to largest: mountain system, mountain range, mountain belt, and mountain. On a world map, what two lines are the starting lines for measurements on Earth surface? Section 4 – Topographic Maps What is a topographic map? How do topographic maps represent elevation and relief? If a contour interval on a topographic map is 50 meters, how much difference in elevation do 12 contour lines represent? What do you need to know about a topographic map in order to read it? Compare the way steep slopes are represented on a topographic map with the way gentle slopes are represented. Reading a map, you see V-shaped contour lines that point uphill. What land feature would you find in this area?