Summary of Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds Test Ignition Test Reagents Bromine in CCl4 Test Baeyer Test Br2 in CCl4 Lucas Test HCl in ZnCl2 Chromic acid Test (or Jones Oxidation) 2,4Dinitrophenylhy drazine Test Iodoform test Alcoholic Silver Nitrate Hydroxamic acid test Ester formation test Bromine water test FeCl3 test Importance Distinguish aliphatic and aromatic cmpds. Test for Unsaturation (alkenes, alkynes) General Test for Alkenes and Alkynes Test for alcohols Positive Result Aliphatic- non-sooty smoke Aromatic- yellow flame, sooty Decolorization of Bromine color Chromic acid (Jones Reagent – CrO3 in H2SO4) Test for alcohols and aldehydes 2,4Dinitrophenylhydrazine in conc. H2SO4 Iodine in KI + NaOH Test for aldehydes and ketones From yellow to blue-green sol’n/suspension (Cr3+) Aldehydes develops in 5 - 15 seconds. Formation of a yellow to orange precipitate, hydrazone or osazone dil. KMnO4 AgNO3 in 2%ethanol + heat Hydroxylamine HCl in 95%ethanol and 6M NaOH Alcohol in sulfuric acid + heat Test for Test for mehylsubstituted ketones and alcohols General test for alkyl halides. General test for esters. Also positive for acyl halides and acid anhydrides and amides. General test for carboxylic acids Bromine in water Test for phenolic compounds FeCl3 sol’n Test for phenolic compounds Formation of red-brown solid (MnO2) Appearance of a cloudy second layer or emulsion (alkylhalide) Notes *also perform Baeyer Test. *room temperature 3o alcohols – 1-3 mins 2o alcohols - 5-10 mins 1o alcohols - no reaction *insoluble cmp’ds in the reagent are not applicable. 3o alcohols – no reaction Phenols give a dark colored solution which is not blue-green like a positive test. Some allylic alcohols are oxidized by the reagent to aldehydes and give a positive test. Formation of yellow precipitate (CHI3, iodoform) Alky halide-Formation of solid AgX salt. Formation of a magenta-color complex. Formation of oily layer on top of the solution, and a sweet, fruity smell (ester) Decolorization of bromine & formation of insoluble white cmpd Formation of red colored complex *Some carboxylic acids give a positive result. *large MW carboxylic acids form odorless ester.