AP US History – Lesson # 20 - EHS

AP US History – Lesson # 20
Progressivism: A New Vision of Government
I. What is Progressivism?
A. Definition
1. belief in progress
2. An optimistic view that believed society could continue to improve
3. Direct and purposeful human intervention was required
B. Variations of Progressivism
1. Antimonopoly approach
 Outgrowth of union and populism approach
 Believed trusts had to be regulated
2. Social Cohesion approach
 Individuals part of a great social web
 Focus on the victims of industrialism
3. Knowledge-based approach
 Society improved through organization and planning
 Developed social sciences into a major field
C. The Muckrakers lead the way
1. journalist who sought to expose corruption and promote justice
2. TR gave them the name by accusing them of raking “muck”
3. Notable muckrakers
 Charles Francis Adams – exposed RR barons
 Ida Tarbell – History of Standard Oil – JD Rockefeller
 Lincoln Steffens – The Shame of the Cities – boss rule
 Jacob Riis – How The Other Half Lives – tenements
 Upton Sinclair – The Jungle – meat packing business
D. The Social Gospel
1. pursuit of social justice
2. driving force in churches during this time period
3. Notable social gospel reformers
 The Salvation Army came over from England
 Charles Sheldon wrote In His Steps about a young minister
 Walter Rauschenbusch – create the doctrine of the “Kingdom of
God” translates Darwinism into religious faith
 Father John Ryan – expand the scope of Catholic social welfare
E. The Settlement House Movement
1. Attempt to relieve the stress of tenements in the city
2. Jane Addams opened the Hull House in Chicago in 1889
3. helped the immigrants adapt to their new country
4. becomes a model for 400 similar institutions
II. Progressivism Applied
A. Economics should be studies and controlled by professionals
1. Thorstein Veblen – A Theory of the Leisure Class - 1899
2. Taylorism – encouraged development of mass-production techniques
B. The Rise of Professionalism
1. American Medical Association – 1901
 By 1920 nearly 2/3 of all doctors were members
 Called for strict standards and required liscensing
 Developed medical education comparable to Europe – 1900
2. Professional Bar Associations – 1916
 Existed in all 48 states
 Created central board examinations
3. Businessmen encouraged business school and national organizations
 1895 – National Association of Manufacturers
 1912 – United Stated Chamber of Commerce
C. Women and Reform
1. Creation of the “New Woman”
 declining family size
 technological innovations helped with domestic chores
 women began living outside of traditional families
-“Boston marriage” – women lived with women
-“The clubwomen” – General Federation of Women’s Clubs
organized over 1 million members by 1917
2. Women Organizations
 The Colored Women’s League of Washington – 1892 -created
nurseries and evening schools for adults
 Women’s Trade Union league – 1903 – improve working
conditions – (1911 – Triangle Shirtwaist Fire)
 National American Women Suffrage Association – 1893 – lead to
19 th amendment in 1920
D. Government Reform
1. Evolution of City-Manager Plan replaces the Machine politics
2. Reform Mayors began to take on municipal ownership of utilities
(Tom Johnson in Cleveland)
3. State Government reforms
 Initiatives and referendums – allow public to vote on legislation
 Direct primary, recall, 17th amendment –control of public offices
 Robert La Follette – Progressive Governor of Wisconsin (1900)
E. Social Reform
1. WEB DuBois and African-American advancements
 Challenges Booker T. Washington and his Atlanta Compromise
 Wrote Souls of Black Folks in 1903 to attack segregation
 Founded the Niagra Movement in 1905
 Became in NAACP in 1909
 Guinn vs US in 1915 major victory against Grandfather clause
2. The Temperance Crusade
 Frances Willard led the Women’s Christian Temperance Union
became the single largest women’s organization by 1911
 Anti-Saloon League (1893) joined forces tried to outlaw drinking
 18 th amendment outlaws alcohol in 1920