THE RISE OF PROGRESSIVISM 1880-1920 PROGRESSIVISM Progress Efficiency Order A REACTION TO THE RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATON AND URBANIZATION THAT OCCURRED IN THE U.S. FROM 1880-1920 Three Progressive Presidents 1. Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 2. William Howard Taft 1909-1913 3. Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 Who were the Progressives? Where were they from? It was a city-based (urban) reform movement Optimists, believed in progress and efficiency Mostly middle class Americans Businessmen, professionals, teachers, doctors, lawyers, ministers professors Women, many of whom were educated Many were white protestants who believed in white racial supremacy Theodore Roosevelt was the first Progressive President ***In the end, many people called themselves “Progressive Reformers” Three Major Impulses of Progressivism 1. 2. 3. Wanted to attack the power of trusts and monopolies Progressives believed in social cohesion-the well-being of one person is tied to the well being of all of society They believed in KNOWLEDGE and EFFICIENCY Progressives organized and took action to bring about change: Muckraking---exposing problems Settlement House Movement The Social Gospel Movement Promoted the training of experts to take on problems Woman Suffrage Movement (vote) “Trust Busting”—breaking up monopolies Government Reform Temperance Movement Immigration Restriction Better working conditions, wages,…. To end prostitution and divorce Other reform movements: Socialism, NAACP, Conservation MUCKRAKERS Ida Tarbell took on Standard Oil trust Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of Cities Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives Upton Sinclair, The Jungle Muckrakers wrote about poor working conditions, government corruption, child labor, poverty, prostitution…… Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle Book led to the passage of legislation to ensure safe food. Pure Food and Drug Administration Regular inspections Hull House, Settlement House in Chicago Hull House Children Jane Addams and friend Hull House Professional Organizations American Medical Association The Bar National Association of Manufacturers Chamber of Commerce National Farm Bureau College Women, 1900s Club Women African American women formed their own clubs…. Woman Suffrage Movement Anti-suffrage Movement WOMEN ON STRIKE City Machines controlled ethnic voters Reform of State and City Government Secret ballot Civil Service exam New forms of city government=City Managers and City Councils or Commissions State government reforms Initiative Referendum Direct Primary Recall The Temperance Crusade Women’s Christian Temperance Union FRANCES WILLARD and the 18th Amendment Carrie Nation Gave away autographed axes to her supporters. The Immigration Debate Raged on… Many industrialists supported immigration because of the constant supply of labor. Immigrants and social problems Eugenics—inferior traits were hereditary Book: The Passing of the Great Race Rise of nativism WWI (1915) increased resentment of immigrants TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST FIRE UNION PROTESTS AFTER THE FIRE Louis Brandeis and the fight against monopolies (“Trust Busting”) International Workers of the World W. E. B. Dubois and the NAACP Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir Yosemite National Park THE BIG PICTURE…. WHATEVER THE WEAKNESSES OR FAILURES OF PROGRESSIVISM, IT LED TO THE RISE OF THE LARGER, MORE ACTIVE GOVERNMENT THAT WE HAVE TODAY.