Progressivism 1890-1910 Because of industrialization, the populations of cities increased dramatically. High levels of immigrants came to the US from the Europe. Poor living conditions for these poor immigrants in the urban areas. People worked under poor, dangerous conditions for low wages. Women still did not have the right to vote. Intellectuals began to question the role of large corporations in American society Political reformers struggled to make government more responsive to the needs of the people These reform efforts are known as the progressive movement Aimed to return government control to the people Progressive movement attracted middle-class city dwellers, including writers, teachers, and scholars. Sought to cure the many social problems caused by industrialization The progressives had four goals: protecting social welfare, promoting moral improvement, creating economic reform, and fostering efficiency Four goals of progressivism Protecting social welfare Strove to relieve urban problems The Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) opened libraries, sponsored classes, and built swimming pools. Salvation army fed poor people in soup kitchens, cared for children in nurseries, and sent “slum brigades” to teach the poor the values of hard work and temperance. Promoting moral reform Felt that morality was the key to improving peoples the lives of the poor. Prohibition – the banning of alcoholic beverages Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) fought for prohibition WCTU also opened kindergartens for immigrants, visited inmates in prisons and asylums, and worked for suffrage. Provided women with expanded public roles The Anti-Saloon League, founded in 1895, angered many immigrants when its members attacked saloons. Saloons also served inexpensive meals, cashed paychecks, and provided rooms for any purpose Creating economic reform A severe economic panic in 1893 made some Americans question the capitalist economic system Writers like Henry George and Edward Bellamy criticized the theory of laissez-faire. Bellamy called capitalism, “brutal and cowardly slaughter of the unarmed and overmatched by bullies in armor.” Some Americans embraced socialism Eugene V. Debs helped organize the American Socialist Party in 1900. Many critics did not agree with socialism, but they did agree that big business often received favorable treatment from the government. Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life were known as muckrakers. Fostering efficiency Tried to increase the efficiency of American society Scientific management – improve efficiency in the workplace by applying scientific principles to make tasks simpler and easier. Workers became more productive and the amount of goods produced increased. The Ford Motor Company introduced the assembly line in 1913. People worked like machines High worker turnover due to injuries Progressivism Questions List and describe the four goals of progressivism. Why did companies prefer to hire children? What kinds of health problems did children develop as a result of being part of the workforce? What did the National Child Labor Committee do? What did the cases of Muller v. Oregon and Bunting v. Oregon do?