Vocabulary for Plants - Ector County Independent School District


Vocabulary for Plants

1. Plants – are multicellular eukaryotes, most of which make their own food through photosynthesis and have adapted to live on land.

2. cuticle – is a waxy, waterproof layer that helps hold in moisture in plants.

3. stomata – tiny holes in the cuticle. Special cells allow stomata to close to prevent water loss, or to open to allow air to move in and out.

4. vascular system – a collection of specialized tissues that bring water and mineral nutrients up from the roots and disperse sugars down from the leaves. A vascular system allows a plant to grow higher off the ground.

5. lignin – a material which hardens the cell walls of some vascular tissues. Is responsible for the strength of wood and provides stiffness to the stems of other plants.

6. pollen grain- a two-celled structure that contains a cell that will divided to form sperm.

7. seed – a storage device for a plant embryo

8. pollination – occurs when pollen meets female reproductive parts of the same plant species.

9. gymnosperm – a seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed in fruit

10. angiosperm – a seed plant that has seeds enclosed in some type of fruit

11. cone – the reproductive structure of most gymnosperms. It contains a hard productive scales.

12. flower – the reproductive structure of flowering plants. Flowers protect the plants gametes and fertilized eggs.

13. fruit – the mature ovary of a flower.

14. cotyledon – an embryonic leaf inside a seed.

15. monocots – flowering plants whose embryos have one seed leaf. (monocotyledons )

16. dicots – (dicotyledons) flowering plants whose embryos have two seed leaves.

17. wood – a fibrous material made up of dead cells that are part of the vascular system of some plants.

18. botany – the study of plants

19. ethnobotany – explores how people in different cultures use plants.

20. pharmacology – the study of drugs and their effects on the body

21. alkaloid – potent plant chemicals that contain nitrogen.


Geotropism (gravitropism): roots growing downward, cotyledons growing upward.

23. Phototropism: growth of organisms in response to light (to or from)

24. Thigmotropism: movement in which plant moves or grows in response to touch/contact stimulus. Ex.


25. Nastic movement: response of plants parts that is independent of direction of external stimulus Ex.

Opening of buds by alteration in light intensity.

Opening of a rose bud