An Introduction to Chemistry: Atoms First - Mark Bishop CHM 1025C: Modules One & Two Vocabulary Chapters 1, 2 and 3.1-3.3 Bishop Chapter 1: Chemistry – The Study of the structure and behavior of matter. Value – A number and a unit that together represent the result of a measurement or calculation. Unit – A defined quantity based on a standard. Base units – The seven unit from which all other units in the SI system of measurement are derived. Mass – The amount of matter in an object. Weight – A measure of the force of gravitational attraction between an object and a significant large object such as the earth or the moon. Matter – Anything that has mass and occupies space. Absolute Zero – Zero kelvins (0 K), (the lowest possible temperature, equivalent to 273.15 oC). It is a point beyond which motion can no longer be decreased. Precision – The closeness in value of a series of measurements of a series of measurements of the same entity. Accuracy – How closely a measured value approaches the true value of a property. Bishop Chapter 2: Unit Analysis – A general technique for doing unit conversions. Conversion factor (or Unit Factor) – A ratio that describes the relationship between two units. Significant figures – The number of meaningful digits in a value, reflecting the value’s degree of uncertainty. Density – Mass divided by volume or mass per unit volume. Bishop Chapter 3.1, 3.2, 3.3: Model – A simplified approximation of reality Solid – The state in which a substance has a definite shape and volume at a constant temperature Liquid- The state in which a substance has a constant volume at a constant temperature but can change its shape. Gas – the state in which a substance can easily change shape and volume. Vaporization (also called evaporation) – The conversion of a liquid to a gas Element – A substance that can not be chemically converted into a simpler substance in which all the atoms have the same number of protons and therefore the same chemical characteristics. Group or family – All the elements in a given column on the periodic table Metals – The elements that (1) have a metallic luster (2) conduct heat and electric currents well (ductile) and (3) are malleable Nonmetals – The elements that do not have the characteristics of metals Metalloids or semimetals – The elements that have some but not all the characteristics of metals Representative elements (also called Main Group elements) – The elements of Groups 1, 2, and 13 through 18 (the “A” Groups” on the periodic table Transitional metals – The elements in Groups 3 through 12 (the “B” Groups) on the periodic table Inner transitional metals – the 28 elements at the bottom of the periodic table. Periods (or rows) – The horizontal rows of the periodic table. Additional Words (from Lecture, words mention in the text, from Labs, and from other books) Science - The methodical exploration of nature and logical explanation of the observations Experiment - A scientific procedure for gathering data and recording observations under controlled conditions Scientific Method - A systematic investigation that entails performing an experiment, proposing a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating a theory or law. Hypothesis - A tentative proposal of a scientific principle that attempts to explain the meaning of a set of data collected in an experiment. Theory - An extensively tested proposal of a scientific principle that explains the behavior of nature. Alchemist - A pseudoscience that attempted to convert a base metal such as lead to gold; a medieval science that sought to discover a universal cure for disease and a magic potion for immortality. Inorganic Chemistry - The study of chemical substances that do not contain carbon Organic Chemistry - The study of chemical substances that contain carbon. Biochemistry - The study of chemical substances derived from plants and animals. Scientific law (or natural law) - An extensively tested proposal of a scientific principle that states a measurable relationship under different experimental conditions Physical State - The condition of matter existing as a solid, liquid, or gas. Physical Change - A property that can be observed without changing the formula of a substance. Physical Property - A property that can be observed without changing the formula of a substance. Sublimation - A direct change of state from a solid to a gas. Deposition - A direct change of state from a gas to a solid Heterogeneous Mixture - Matter having an indefinite composition and variable properties. Homogeneous Mixture - Matter having a definite composition, but variable properties. Pure Substance (or Substance) - Matter having a definite composition and constant properties. Alloy - A homogeneous mixture of two or more metals Compound - A pure substance that can be broken down into simpler substances. Atom - Smallest particle that represents an element. Molecule - A single particle composed of two or more nonmetals. Chemical Symbol – An abbreviation for the name of an element. Chemical Formula - An abbreviation for the name of a compound. Chemical Property - A property that cannot be observed without changing the formula of a substance. Chemical Change - A modification of a substance that alters the chemical composition Atomic Number - A number that identifies a particular element. Periodic Chart (or Periodic Table) - A chart that arranges elements according to their properties. Potential Energy - The stored energy that matter possesses owing to its position or composition Kinetic Energy - The energy associated with the mass and velocity of a particle.