Chapter 4 intro to psy



Chapter 4 Circadian Rhythm:

The pattern of fluctuations in bodily processes that occur regularly each day. 2.


An altered state of consciousness characteristics by focused attention, deep, relaxation, and heightened susceptibility to suggestion. 3.

REM sleep:

The stage of sleep that involves rapid eye movements and that is most closely associated with periods of dreaming. 4.


A drug that activates the nervous system, such as cocaine or nicotine. 5.


A state of awareness of ourselves and of the world around us. 6.


Difficulty falling asleep, remaining asleep, or returning to sleep after nighttime awakenings. 7.

Psychoactive drugs:

Chemical substances that affect a person’s mental or emotional state. 8.


Drugs that alter sensory experiences and produce hallucinations. 9.


A disorder characterized by sudden unexplained sleep attacks during the day. 10.


A form of physical habituation to a drug in which increased amounts are needed to achieve the same effect. 11.


Drugs, such as alcohol and barbiturates that dampen central nervous system activity. 12.

Latent Content:

True underlying meaning of the dream, disguised in the form of dream symbols. 13.

Manifest Content:

Refers to events that occur in the dream. 14.

Sleep Apnea:

Temporary cessation of breathing during sleep. (causes people to snore because of airways been too narrow) 15.


Are narcotics, addictive drugs that have pain-relieving and sleep inducing properties. (morphine, heroin)


Activation-synthesis hypothesis:

occurs during REM sleep. The proposition that dreams represent the brain’s attempt to make sense of the random discharges of electrical activity that 17.

Drug dependence:

A severe drug-related problem characterized by impaired control over the use of the drug. 18.

Physiological dependence:

A state of physical dependence on a drug caused by repeated usage that changes body chemistry. 19.


A method of learning to control one’s bodily functions by monitoring one’s own brain waves, blood pressure, degree of muscle tension. 20.

Psychological Dependence:

A patterns of compulsive or habitual us of a drug to satisfy a psychological need. 21.

Withdrawal Syndrome:

A cluster of symptoms associated with abrupt withdrawal from a drug. 22.

Sleepwalking disorder:

A sleep disorder characterized by repeated episodes of sleepwalking. 23.

Altered states of consciousness:

State of awareness that differ from one’s usual waking state. 24.

Drug Abuse:

Maladaptive or dangerous use of a chemical substance. 25.

Lucid dreams:

Dreams in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. 26.


A form of consciousness during a waking state in which one’s mind wanders to dreamy thoughts or fantasies. 27.


Addictive drugs that have pain-relieving and sleep inducing properties. 28.


A Chemical addiction characterized by impaired control over the use of alcohol and physiological dependence on it. 29.

Posthypnotic suggestion:

A hypnotist’s suggestion that the subject will respond in a particular way following hypnosis. 30.

Neodissociation theory:

A theory of hypnosis based on the belief that hypnosis represents a state of dissociated consciousness.


Hidden Observer:

Hilgard’s term for a part of consciousness that remains detached from the hypnotic experience but aware of everything that happens during it. 32.