AP Psychology Consciousness Spring 2015 Reading Guide – Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind 2-4% of AP Exam AP Book: pgs. 85-131 Baron’s Book: pgs. 119-132 Due Date: Friday, February 27th 1.) How has the definition of consciousness morphed and evolved throughout psychology’s history? What is the current definition of consciousness? 2.) What is cognitive neuroscience, and what role does it currently playing in understanding consciousness? 3.) How does dual processing help people focus on more than one thing at a time? 4.) Explain how vision functions as a dual processing system. 5.) Provide an additional example of dual processing that you might experience on a daily basis. 6.) What is selective attention, and how does it relate to consciousness? 7.) Use pages 90-91 to complete the chart below What is it? Example(s) Inattentional Blindness Change Blindness Choice Blindness 8.) Quiz yourself with the provided statements at the top of page 92! 9.) Explain what a circadian rhythm is and how it influences human behavior 10.) What do bright lights and darkness have to do with one’s circadian rhythm? 11.) Provide a definition of REM sleep. 12.) How do alpha waves and sleep differ? 13.) What is a hallucination? At what point during one’s sleep cycle might they experience this? 14.) What behaviors categorize stages 3 and 4 of the sleep cycle? How do delta waves relate to this stage? 15.) Why is REM sleep often considering paradoxical sleep? 16.) Explain how one’s culture influences their need for sleep. 17.) List at least three effects of sleep deprivation, and cite a specific one for teenagers. 18.) Use pages 101-103 to complete the chart below What is it? Insomnia Narcolepsy Sleep apnea Night terrors Characteristics How can it be treated? 19.) Provide the definition of a dream and the related terms a. Dream: b. Manifest content: c. Latent content: 20.) Provide and explain at least three reasons why people dream (according to Sigmund Freud) 21.) What is a REM rebound? 22.) Provide an in-depth definition of hypnosis. 23.) Respond to each of the prompts below based on examples and content provided on pages 108-110. a. Can anyone experience hypnosis? b. Can hypnosis enhance recall of forgotten events? c. Can hypnosis force people to act against their will? d. Can hypnosis be therapeutic? Define posthypnotic suggestions, too. e. Can hypnosis alleviate pain? 24.) What do supporters of the social influence theory believe regarding hypnosis? What about the dividedconsciousness theory? 25.) What do psychoactive drugs do in regards to consciousness? 26.) How does one achieve tolerance? What is it? 27.) When someone goes through withdrawal (discomfort and distress following the discontinued use of an addictive drug), how do physical and psychological dependence become evident? 28.) Use pages 114-122 to complete the chart below Effects of these types of drugs/how they influence consciousness Examples of each psychoactive drug Long-term psychological effects Depressants Barbiturates: Opiates: Stimulants Amphetamines: Methamphetamines: Ecstasy: Hallucinogens LSD: 29.) Explain how some individuals can be more biologically vulnerable to particular drugs than others. 30.) What are some social-cultural influences on drug use? Psychological influences? 31.) Provide a definition of a near-death experience. How does it relate to consciousness?