A&P II Study Objectives Cardiovascular System: Circulation 1. Compare and contrast arteries, arterioles, veins, venules and capillaries both functionally and structurally. 2. Explain how blood flows via a pressure gradient. 3. Define systolic and diastolic blood pressure 4. Define and be able to calculate pulse pressure. 5. Define and be able to calculate mean arteriole pressure (MAP). 6. Explain the significance of MAP to the CV system and the body. 7. Discuss blood pressure as it relates to CO. 8. Define peripheral resistance and explain its significance. 9. Describe the effects of the following factors on resistance and thus blood pressure: blood viscosity, vessel, diameter, vessel length. 10. Discuss the relationship between blood volume and blood presuure. 11. Discuss other factors which affect blood pressure. Include examples. 12. Explain methods by which blood pressure is controlled and regulated in the body. 13. Define the roles of the vasomotor center, barroreceptors, and chemoreceptors in blood pressure regulation 14. Define hypertension and characterize it by symptoms and consequences. 15. Discuss the role of the capillary network. 16. Define Peff and explain Starling’s Law of the Capillaries. 17. Define shock. List and describe several possible types of shock. 18. Briefly describe the structure and function (role) of each of the following circulatory routes: systemic, pulmonary, coronary, cerebral, hepatic portal, and fetal. Include and unique features where appropriate.