Content Term area 1 Approval of programs 1 Bill of Rights of the Retarded & other rights 1 Components and limitations of emergency procedures 1 Confidentiality 1 Emergency procedures 1 Emergency situations 1 HRSM 160-4 1 Informed consent 1 Least restrictive treatment 1 Normalization 1 Procedure selection (5 issues) Answer For restrictive programs, informed consent should be obtained where appropriate; informed consent may be circumvented if the client is in serious danger, if the treatment has a reasonable chance of success, and if there are procedural safeguards in place. Approval should also be obtained by a BCBA or LRC chair as stated in 65-G. Developmentally disabled individuals should be afforded basic rights, including the right to medical care, privacy, central file, habilitation plan, personal belongings, due process, freedom from unnecessary restraints or cruel and unusual punishment, etc. a. Should be accompanied by active programming strategies b. Use only when absolutely necessary c. Behaviors and precursors should be clearly defined d. Train staff in how to implement - consider logistical problems e. Ensure adequate staff f. Ensure reporting, monitoring, and evaluation g. Avoid or minimize negative side effects - avoid dangerous confrontations when possible Attempt to keep a client's personal information away from public view, to be released only with consent of the client or guardian Procedures designed to protect the person, others or the environment from immediate harm, not as therapeutic interventions. Two types: 1. immediate restraint 2. immediate isolation Situations that present a risk to the client or others. Three types: 1. behavior that is totally unexpected 2. behavior that is low frequency (< 6/year) 3. behavior that must be managed until a program is in place Behavior Management Guidelines maintained by Developmental Services of HRS. Specifies the range of aversive procedures that can be used and the approval requirements thereof. Required when restrictive procedures are used. For informed consent, the person must be 1. informed of cost/benefits and alternatives 2. capable of giving consent 3. voluntarily giving consent. The person must have the opportunity to withdraw consent at any time. Using treatment that minimizes suspension of basic rights or freedoms. The "least restrictive treatment" that has a reasonable change of success should be used. Living environments and treatment procedures should be used that are most like those applied to normal populations A behavioral programmer should consider the following issues in selecting a procedure: Use the least restrictive procedure; use the most normal procedure; are staff trained to implement procedure; is there a competent behavior analyst to supervise; and is there support for the 1 Program Review Process 2 Analytic 2 Applied 2 Applied Behavior Analysis vs Experimental Analysis of Behavior 2 Assumptions/Characteristics of Science 2 Automatic reinforcement 2 Behavioral 2 Behavioral Technologies 2 Behaviorism 2 Characteristics of ABA 2 Conceptually Systematic 2 Dependent Variable 2 Determinism 2 Effective 2 Empiricism 2 Explanatory Fiction/Circular Reasoning procedure by significant others LRC (Local Review Committee): approves restrictive behavior programs in its DCF district. PRC (Peer Review Committee): comprises experts in the field, provides technical assistance HRAC (Human Rights Advocacy Committee): attempts to ensure that basic client rights are protected Characteristic of ABA. Scientifically based experimental designs are used to assess the effectiveness of interventions under study. Characteristic of ABA. Focuses on behavior with social significance. Both use systematic manipulations and data analysis of individual organisms. ABA: Behaviors of social significance to the person are investigated EAB: Behaviors of no social significance of the person are investigated 1. Determinism 2. Law of Parsimony 3. Scientific Manipulation 4. Empiricism 5. Philosophic Doubt 6. Replication A reinforcer that is produced by the behavior without the participation of other people. For example, echolalia produces sounds that may maintain the behavior. It can be positive or negative reinforcement. Characteristic of ABA. Behavior is the focus, not a hypothetical entity. Collection of procedures that have arisen from research and are applied to practical problems by practitioners. Ex: behavioral momentum is now implemented by many service providers in clinics, schools, and homes Philosophy of behavior that assumes behavior is a function of current and past environments as well as genetics. 1. Effective 2. Technological 3. Conceptually Systematic 4. Generality 5. Analytic 6. Applied 7. Behavioral Characteristic of ABA. Procedures are tied to the basic principles of behavior. Measure of behavior of interest Assumption of Science. Behavior is caused by some event. Characteristic of ABA. Attempt to produce large enough effect that has an impact on the person's life. Assumption of Science. Information is collected by objective observations Explaining behavior by using entity that lies within the 2 Generality 2 Inadequate Explanations of Behavior 2 Independent Variable 2 Law of Parsimony 2 Mentalistic Explanations of Behavior 2 Nominal Fallacy 2 Philosophic Doubt 2 Private Events 2 Reification 2 Scientific Manipulation 2 Social Significance 2 Systematic Manipulation 2 Technological 2 Teleology 2 What is Behaviorism? 2 What is the difference between Applied and Experimental Analysis? 3 Abative effect 3 Abolishing Operations 3 Adventitious Reinforcement behavior itself. (Eric is aggressive because he has an aggressive trait. Evidence of aggressive trait is his aggressive behavior) Extent to which the results or functional relations will be observed if the experiment is changed in some way. Can be tested by implementing the Tx with different Ss, settings, behaviors, or species. 1. Nominal Fallacy 2. Teleology 3. Reification 4. Circular reasoning Treatment or intervention Assumption of Science. The simplest explanation of behavior should be provided, all else being equal Explanations that appeal to mental, unobservable processes. Ex: The child was aggressive due to his frustration with school. Explaining behavior by naming or classifying it (The behavior is PICA to explain eating inedible objects) Assumption of Science. Conclusions of science are tentative and can be revised as new data comes to light. Behavior and/or stimuli that can only be observed by the person. (Ex: headaches) These behaviors and stimuli still must be explained by appealing to a history of environmental contingencies or biological processes. Explaining behavior by appealing to non-existent entity (ID, ego, self, etc.) Characteristic of Science. Systematically manipulating an event to see effects on behavior Characteristic of Applied Behavior Analysis whereas the behavior is socially significant to the person as well as the changes that occur. Assumption of science. To see if an event affects behavior, the event is systematically manipulated and the effects on behavior are noted. Characteristic of ABA. Provides written detail of procedures to permit replication of techniques in other settings. Explaining behavior by appealing to future, unexperienced events (I am doing my homework to graduate) Philosophy of behavior that assumes that behavior is a function of past and current events as well as genetics. The difference is that with Applied the behaviors have social significance to the person being investigated whereas with Experimental Analysis they do not. When a stimulus causes an immediate weakening of a response. Term applies to the effect of an S-delta or SDP. 1. Decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus 2. Decreases the strength of the behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past Refers to accidental reinforcement, results in 3 Antecedent 3 Audience 3 Autoclitic 3 Avoidance behavior 3 Behavior 3 Behavior contrast: negative 3 Behavior contrast: positive 3 COD 3 Collateral Measures 3 Concurrent superstition 3 Conditioned Motivative Operations (CMO) 3 Conditioned Reinforcer (punisher) 3 Consequence 3 Contingency 3 Contingency Shaped Behavior 3 CR 3 CS 3 Cycle 3 Dead Man’s Test 3 Deprivation 3 Discrete Trials 3 Discriminated Operant superstitious behavior. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it. Ex: Pitcher wears socks and has good game, then wears sock at all games. Event before the behavior The individual(s) who provides the reinforcement for VB. The audience is an SD for the VB. VB that is used to modify the effect of other VB on the listener ("You are moving really slowly") Avoidance behavior that is reinforced by the postponement or avoidance of an aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer). Interaction of a person and his/her environment. Action of the muscles and/or glands When a treated behavior increases (e.g., ext or punishment), and the same untreated behavior in another situation decreases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied in multiple schedules. When a treated behavior decreases (e.g., ext or punishment), and the same untreated behavior in another situation increases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied in multiple schedules. Change over delay - when a concurrent superstition occurs, a delay is programmed after the first behavior occurs to eliminate the superstition. Measures of behaviors other than the primary target behaviors When a behavior (e.g., tantrum) is maintained by the reinforcer for another behavior (e.g., mand for food). Have the same effects that motivative operations have, but are due to a conditioning history A consequence that increases (or decreases) the rate of behavior because it has been paired with another reinforcer (or punisher) Event that occurs after the behavior Dependency among behavior and stimuli or among stimuli. Can be expressed as an If-Then Statement. Behavior that occurs because it has resulted from direct exposure to contingencies. Conditioned Response – a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus Conditioned Stimulus – a neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response through pairing with a US Specifies when a behavior begins and when it ends. Test for evaluating whether a goal or objective is viable. If a dead man can do it, then it may not be a functional, useful goal. Absence of reinforcer for a period of time, thereby making that event more effective as a reinforcer. An instructional method wherein the client is presented with formal opportunity to perform behavior. Consequence is provided depending on behavior. Behavior that requires some "opportunity" or specific antecedent to occur. Ex: in order to follow directions, 3 Discrimination 3 Discrimination Training 3 Echoic 3 Environment 3 Escape behavior 3 Escape Extinction 3 Establishing Operation 3 Evocative effect 3 Extinction 3 Extinction Side-Effects 3 Free Operant 3 Functional equivalence 3 Functional Response Definition 3 Function-altering 3 Function-altering: Operant conditioning 3 Function-altering: Respondent conditioning 3 Function-altering: Rules 3 Fundamental Characteristics of Behavior 3 Generalization Gradient 3 Intraverbal there must first be a direction given. Refers to a change in observed behavior when antecedent stimuli are changed Reinforcing a behavior in the presence of some antecedent and extinguishing (or punishing) the behavior in the absence of the antecedent. Verbal behavior under antecedent control of prior verbal stimulus. Point to point correspondence between the antecedent stimulus and the response. (imitative behavior) Entire constellation of stimuli that can affect a person (includes both internal/external) Escape behavior is behavior that is reinforced by escaping from a aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer) Extinction of a negatively reinforced behavior. Withholding escape. 1. Increases the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus 2. Increases the strength of the behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past When a stimulus causes an immediate strengthening of a response. Term applies to the effect of an SD, CS, or US. Withholding a stimulus that normally occurs after a behavior, resulting in a decrease in the rate of behavior. Extinction burst, emotional behavior, aggression, increase in variety of topographies, increase in intensity of behavior Behavior that can occur at anytime, given some motivation. When two or more behaviors have the same effect (they belong to the same operant). This concept is often used in identifying a replacement behavior. Includes the topography of response as well as the functional antecedents and/or consequences. The concept that conditioning (and rules) alters the function of stimuli. For example, discrimination training creates SDs. And, reinforcement creates EO s. Reinforcement alters the function of neutral stimuli and results in the emergence of SDs and EO s. The pairing of a NS and US results in a change of the NS function - it becomes a CS. Rules create new CSs, SDs, conditioned reinforcers, EO s, etc. 1. Temporal locus 2. Temporal extent 3. Repeatability Rate, Latency, Duration are derived from this. A graph that shows the frequency of a behavior in various stimulus conditions, one of which is the "training" situation and then other similar but untrained "test" situations. Verbal behavior evoked by some antecedent verbal stimulus, but without point to point correspondence (ex: 3 Mand 3 Motivational Operation (2 effects) 3 Motivational operation: distal 3 Motivational operation: proximal 3 Negative Punisher 3 Negative Reinforcement 3 Negative Reinforcer 3 NS 3 Operant 3 Operant Conditioning 3 Positive Punisher 3 Positive Reinforcement 3 Positive Reinforcer 3 Primary Reinforcer 3 Reflexive CMO 3 Resistance to Extinction 3 Respondent (classical) Conditioning 3 Respondent Extinction 3 Response 3 Response class covariation 3 Response Definition 3 Response Generalization red white and_____) Verbal behavior that specifies its reinforcer and is evoked by some establishing operation. (asking for) 1. Changes the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus 2. Changes the strength of behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past An MO that is temporally removed from a behavior - for example, several hours prior to the behavior that is strengthened. An MO that occurs close in time to a behavior Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, decreases the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will increase. Process in which a stimulus is withdrawn after a behavior, and the rate of the behavior increases. Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, increases the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will decrease. Neutral Stimulus – stimulus that does not elicit a response prior to conditioning A collection of responses with a common effect on the environment. Ex: child may do a variety of things to obtain attention. Kind of learning where a class of behavior (operant) is modified by changing its consequences. A stimulus that when presented after a behavior, decreases the rate of behavior. The IRTs would increase. Process in which a stimulus is presented after a behavior and the rate of the behavior increases. The IRTs would decrease. Stimulus that when presented after a behavior, increases the rate of the behavior. Note that the IRT will decrease. Reinforcer effective without previous experience (food, water) Have their effects because their presence signals a "worsening" or "improvement" of conditions. In the former, their offset is reinforcing. In the latter, their offset is punishing. The extent to which behavior persists when the maintaining reinforcer is withheld. Abbreviation: RTE Kind of learning in which one stimulus is paired with a second stimulus and, as a result, the first comes to elicit the same or similar response that the second elicits Decrease in the strength of a CR as a result of presenting the CS alone A single instance of a behavioral class. Operants contain various topographies. If the strength of one member of the operant is changed by reinforcement or punishment, then the strength of the other members is changed as well. Description of a response that is in objective and observable terms Effects of a contingency spread to responses not yet 3 Rule-Governed Behavior 3 Rules 3 Satiation 3 SD 3 S-delta 3 SDP 3 Sensory Extinction 3 Skinner’s Verbal Behavior 3 Social Extinction 3 Social Learning Theory 3 Spontaneous Recovery 3 Stimulus 3 Stimulus Class 3 Stimulus Control 3 Stimulus Generalization 3 Superstitious Behavior 3 Surrogate CMO 3 Tact associated with the contingency. Behavior resulting from rules rather than direct exposure to contingencies. For example a person may put together a bike using the instruction manual. Contingency-specifying stimuli that describe relations between stimuli or between stimuli and behavior Decrease in responding due to the reduced effectiveness of the reinforcer, because the person has received too much of it. Stimulus that 1. evokes a behavior 2. because that behavior has been reinforced in the presence of the stimulus. A stimulus that 1. suppresses a behavior 2. because that behavior has been extinguished in the presence of the stimulus Stimulus that 1. decreases or suppresses a behavior 2. because that behavior has been punished in the presence of the stimulus. Extinction of a behavior maintained by sensory reinforcers. The sensory reinforcers are withheld. A system of language that classifies verbal behavior according to its function. Extinction of a behavior maintained by social reinforcers. Withholding social reinforcement. Theory of learning that posits learning occurs as a result of observations that subsequently affect the person through cognitive mediational processes. Following an extinction session, a temporary reappearance of the behavior in the beginning of the next extinction session. It is thought that the re-appearance is due to the relative novelty of the "beginning of the session" that was only briefly experienced in the previous session. An energy change in the environment that affects a person through his/her senses. Collection of stimuli with a common characteristic. Ex: any stimulus that evokes tantrums, or any stimulus of a certain wavelength. The extent to which a behavior occurs when the antecedent stimulus is presented. EX: Mom has stimulus control over a child's tantrums to the extent that the child tantrums in the presence of mom, and does not tantrum in her absence. Effects of a contingency spread to stimuli not yet associated with the contingency. Behavior that occurs due to accidental or adventitious reinforcement. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it. A surrogate CMO has its effect because of a history of pairing with an MO, and these effects mimic those of the MO. Verbal behavior that is evoked by some non-verbal environmental stimulus (naming) 3 Tact extensions 3 Target Behavior 3 Textual 3 Topographical Response Definition 3 Topography of Response 3 Transitive CMO 3 Unconditioned Reinforcer 3 UR 3 US 3 Verbal behavior 4 Antecedent Manipulation 4 Baseline 4 Behavioral Assessment 4 Complete Behavioral Support Plan 4 Conditional probability 4 Contextual Variables (setting events) 4 Descriptive Assessment 4 Direct Solutions to Behavior Problems 4 Ecological Changes 4 Functional Analysis 4 Functional analysis best practice: how many controls to use Generic, metaphor, metonomy, solistic - degrees of generalization of the tact Behavior to be changed. Verbal behavior evoked by some written stimulus with some point to point correspondence Includes only description of the form, or topography, of the response. Form of response (e.g. kicking, hitting,) Change the reinforcing value of some other stimulus, and change the strength of behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past. A reinforcer that is effective without previous experience. Ex: food, drinks Unconditioned Response- response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus – stimulus that elicits a behavior w/o any history. Behavior that is maintained by reinforcement mediated by another person. Adding or removing antecedents that evoke behaviors Pre-intervention assessment that is used to refine recording procedures, design the intervention and provide data with which to compare intervention data when evaluating intervention effects. Assessment that examines the person's entire life in order to identify possible causes of the behavior in question. You may use descriptive assessment methods or functional analyses. 4 Elements: motivational operations, discriminative control, replacement behaviors and consequence manipulations The likelihood of an event occurring, given another event (e.g., how often a behavior occurs, given an antecedent). Formula: #A--> B/ # A OR # B --> C/# B. Variables that are more generally present stimuli that are not necessarily manipulated as part of a behavior change program. May influence the efficacy of behavioral procedures. Ex: medical status, task variation, number of staff, etc. Includes: records review, interviews of clients or significant others, and direct observations. The goal is to identify patterns of behavior, topographies and frequencies in order to develop an hypothesis Solutions to behavior problems that do not involve formal behavior programs. Ex: treating a medical condition, removing an antecedent stimulus, changing some feature of the environment, etc. Changing schedules, staffing patterns, activities, diet, etc. Manipulation of environmental conditions to determine a functional relation between problem behavior and independent variables. Goal is to confirm hypothesis developed in descriptive assessment. Use one control for each test (pair wise) 4 Functional analysis best practice: natural vs Natural contrived environments 4 Functional analysis best practice: role of To develop an hypothesis supplemental information 4 Functional analysis best practice: what to do If descriptive assessment does not indicate behavior with tangible condition occurs to produce tangibles, then don't include in test conditions. 4 Functional analysis models AB and ABC 4 Functional analysis on high intensity behavior Look at the latency to the first response in the condition. Then end the condition. Or, just study precursors. 4 Functional analysis: AB model FA in which an EO is manipulated (task vs no task; frequent attention vs low attention). No consequences are presented when behavior occurs. 4 Functional analysis: ABC model FA in which consequences are manipulated. Attention condition: FR 1 attention for problem behavior. Tangible condition: FR 1 tangible for problem behavior. 4 Functional analysis: brief An FA that involves 1 or 2 sessions 4 Functional Analysis: Multi-Component Arranging for particular conditions/situations (task, alone, Manipulations enriched environment, etc) and measuring behavior. Reinforcers may be provided for problem behavior. 4 Functional analysis: Pair wise When a particular test condition (e.g., FR 1 attention) has a corresponding control condition (e.g., continuous attention). A pair wise is often used to test a particular hypothesis (e.g., is the behavior maintained by attention?). 4 Functional analysis: role of precursors Can be the DV if the problem behavior is dangerous. 4 Functional analysis: undifferentiated data This suggests that the behavior is under multiple control (there is more than 1 operant) - or it may suggest that there is some idiosyncratic variable that is maintaining the behavior in all conditions. 4 Interventions that follow from assessment Ecological changes, antecedent manipulation, replacement skills, change consequences of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors, emergency procedures, motivational operations 4 Lag sequential analysis When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be between an A and B, or between a B and C. Formula for A and B: Prob(A-->B)/Prob(A). Formula for B and C: Prob(B-->C)/Prob(B) 4 Lag sequential analysis: Lag 1 When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be between an A and B, or between a B and C. Lag 1 refers to the fact that the CP examines the A just before the B, or the C just after the B. 4 Lag sequential analysis: Lag 2 When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be between an A and B, or between a B and C. Lag 2 refers to the fact that the CP examines the A that is two antecedents before the B, or the C that is two consequences after the B. 4 Pattern Analysis Looking for patterns of behavior, noting any kind of correlation of behavior and some other factor. Ex: time of day, staff, curriculum, etc. Common type of pattern analysis is scatterplot. 4 Replacement Skills New skills that are taught to replace target behaviors in order to obtain the same reinforcer 4 Sequence Analysis Identifying events that typically precede and follow a 4 Testing Hypothesis in Functional Analysis 5 Alternating Treating (multi-element) Design 5 Between subject designs 5 Changing Criterion 5 Component Analysis 5 Confounding Variable 5 Correlation 5 Deductive Processes 5 Direct Replication 5 Experimental Design 5 External Validity 5 Functional Relation 5 Inductive processes 5 Integrity of the Independent Variable 5 Internal Validity 5 Multiple Baseline (3) 5 Multiple Probe 5 Parametric Analysis target behavior. Also called ABC Analysis. Conditions are arranged to test the hypothesis. Ex: high v.s. low attention conditions to assess behavior thought to occur for attention Two or more treatments with their own signal, alternated across time - usually in the same day. Participants only receive 1 condition (e.g., BL or TX). The mean of each group is typically reported. A design in which criterion in reinforcement is systematically changed. Control is shown when changes in behavior shadow changes in criterion. Taking treatment apart and identifying which component is the effective component. Can be accomplished by slowly taking each element out -or- by starting with a single element and slowly adding each element. Uncontrolled variables or events that influence the outcome of an experiment. Often accompany the IV and thus are indistinguishable form the IV. Two events co-vary. One may cause the second, the second may cause the first, or both may be caused by a third variable. Testing hypothesis by collecting data in systematic manipulation format. Repeating the exact experiment with the same (intrasubject) or similar subjects (inter-subject). When used with the same participant, allows for assessment of internal validity. A sequence of conditions that permit conclusions about whether the changes in behavior resulted from the intervention Extent to which intervention can be successfully applied to other people, other situations, or other behaviors. Also termed generality. When an independent variable lawfully affects a dependent variable Generating a hypothesis from data that has already been collected. Refers to the extent to which the treatment is implemented as intended. Whether or not changes in behavior can be attributed to the intervention. AB designs lack strong internal validity, but ABA or ABAB designs have strong internal validity. Baseline data are collected on two or more subjects, situations, or behaviors. Intervention is applied to the first, and then the first and second, etc. Multiple baseline design except that untreated behaviors are assessed periodically through probes until they receive the intervention. Studying different values or levels of a treatment. Can be accomplished by randomly presenting the different values in a ABCDEF design varied across participants -or- by presenting the values in an ascending/descending series in ABCDEDCBA design. This design is often used in drug studies. 5 Practical Issues with Alternating Treatments Design 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 Effects of one treatment can be seen in other conditions due to rapid alternation. If treatment procedures are not discriminable, differences may not be evident in data. Practical Issues with Changing Criterion Not all behaviors/treatments can be studied with this Design design. In some cases, a reinforcement parameter may be able to be varied. Practical Issues with Multiple Baseline Design Requires untreated behaviors, participants or settings which could be dangerous. Internal validity can be unclear when generalization occurs. Practical Issues with Withdrawal & Reversal 1. Requires counter-therapeutic change Designs 2. Not appropriate for irreversible changes 3. SIB can be dangerous in this design Reversal Design A design in which an intervention is applied to behavior, then removed and a second intervention is applied to the same behavior (ex: NCR), and then the second intervention is removed and the first is re-applied. Steady state When data show no trend according to some criterion (e.g., no visible trend over 5 sessions) Systematic Replication Purposefully changing elements of the experiment and repeating the new experiment. Displays external validity or generality. Threats to Internal Validity Events that call into question whether the changes in behavior resulted from the treatment. Include maturation of the subject(s), inaccurate or biased recording, poor implementation of the treatment, unplanned environmental changes, etc. Transition state When there is a trend in the data, and there is presumably an ongoing behavioral process that is changing the strength of the behavior. Transition states occur between steady states. Withdrawal Design Design in which baseline conditions are alternated with intervention conditions. Minimum alternations are ABA or BAB. Withdrawal with Probe Design A standard ABAB design except the return to the A condition is very brief. Yoking: between subject Between subject yoking: when some parameter in a condition is used in another condition for a different subject (e.g., one subject, called the master, is responding under a FR 5 condition. When this subject earns a reinforcer, another subject receives a reinforcer. This would be used to generate a VT schedule for the "slave." ). Yoking: within subject Within subject yoking: when some parameter in a condition is used in another condition for a subject (e.g., the rate of reinforcement in a FR 5 condition is used to program a FT schedule in another condition). ABC recording Recording antecedent, behavior, consequence streams. Used in descriptive assessments. Accuracy Presumed to be present when there is agreement between 2 trained observers. But more correctly, when data are consistent "true values." Behavior Definitions Observable and measurable description of behavior Bias of partial interval recording, whole Partial interval: overestimates rates, used for reduction interval recording and momentary time targets sampling Whole interval: underestimates rates, used for acquisition 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 skills Momentary time sampling: no systematic bias Celeration A measure of the change in behavior over time (10/min, 20/min = doubling) Continuous vs. Sampling Recording Continuous - uninterrupted observation and recording Sampling - behavior observed and recorded occasionally Direct Observation Observing behavior directly, instead of assessing through testing Duration Time between the beginning of a response and the end of that response Duration Recording Using some timing device, recording the length of time of the behavior/response Event Recording # of occurrences of a response are recorded. Frequency Number of times a behavior occurs (Ex: count) Intensity Force of behavior, which could be measured in decibels (loudness) or lbs/sq in (pressure) Inter-observer agreement (IOA) Extent to which two observer's data agree. It is said to estimate accuracy. Inter-observer agreement (IOA): exact count 1. Divide observation time into intervals per interval 2. Compute IOA for each interval by dividing small/large x 100 3. # of intervals = 100%/# intervals Inter-observer agreement (IOA): mean count 1. Divide observation time into intervals per interval 2. Compute IOA for each interval by dividing small/large x 100 3. Average all interval IOA Inter-observer agreement (IOA): total count Smaller count/larger count X 100 Inter-observer agreement (IOA): Trial by trial # trials with agreement/# trials x 100 IRT - Interresponse Time Time between end of a response and the beginning of another response. Latency Duration of time between a stimulus and the beginning of response Momentary-Time Sampling A recording procedure in which a time period is divided into bins. A "+" is recorded if the behavior occurs at the end of the bin. A "-" is recorded if behavior does not occur at the end of the bin. There is no systematic bias. Narrative recording On-line description of behavior, antecedents and consequences written in prose. Observation Times for High Rate Behavior Can be brief Observation Times for Low Rate Behavior Longer duration to catch the behavior Observer drift Tendency for an observer's recording to gradually change across time. It can be pinpointed to the time when an observer's scores differ from those of a 2nd observer. One cause is a change in response definition. Partial Interval Recording Recording procedure in which a time period is divided into bins. A "+" is recorded in each bin if a behavior occurs at all during that bin. A "-" is recorded if the behavior did not occur at all during that bin. This recording procedure tends to be an overestimate. Percentage Correct # of correct responses/ # of total responses, multiplied by 100 Permanent Product Recording Recording the effects of the behavior, not the behavior itself (Ex: bed made) 6 Rate 6 Reactivity 6 Recalibration 6 Recording Procedures 6 Reliability 6 Training observers 6 Trials to Criterion 6 True Values 6 Whole Interval Recording 7 Bar Graphs (Histograms) 7 Characteristics of Graphed Data 7 Condition Change Line 7 Cumulative Record 7 Data 7 Data path 7 Graph 7 Horizontal Axis Label 7 Ignored Day 7 Level 7 No Chance Day 7 Split Middle Method 7 Standard Chart: Celeration #of responses/ time (Ex: responses/minute) Extent to which the act of recording influences behavior (behavior changes when being observed) Re-training an observer to increase accuracy, used to decrease/correct observer drift Methods for recording behavior that produce data transposable into a measure Extent to which a given measurement result will be obtained with the same sample of behavior Observers can be trained through explanation, video tapes, modeling and feedback. They can be calibrated using behaviors for which frequencies are known. Number of trials required for a behavior to meet some criterion (Ex: number of trials it takes to complete a task without error) Data in which extraordinary measures have been taken to eliminate sources of error. True values hould approximate the true measure of the behavior in the sample. A recording procedure in which a time period is divided into bins. A "+" is recorded if the behavior occurred during the entire bin. A "-" is recorded if the behavior did not occur during the entire bin. This recording tends to be an underestimate. Graphs used to show the average # of behaviors or other measures. Not appropriate for showing daily frequencies in real time. Level, Trend and Variability Vertical line on graphs to indicate change. Solid line for planned treatment/condition changes. Dashed line for unplanned environment changes (Ex: changes in staff). Graph that shows the cumulative number of responses over time. Rate of response is represented by the slope of the line. The results of measurement usually in a quantifiable form (e.g., # aggressions in a day, the rate of correct vs incorrect flash cards). The line connecting two successive data points. Visual display of data, used for decision making and comparisons of different treatments Some unit of time (days, sessions, weeks, etc) A day wherein the behavior did have a chance to occur but no data were collected, thus, the previous data point and the one following are connected General height of the points, described by median/mean of points A day wherein the behavior could not occur, thus, the previous data point and the one following are not connected. Method for drawing a trend line. The line is drawn so that half of the data points fall above the line and half of the data points fall below the line. Rate of change, computed by drawing a best fit line and dividing the rates on 2 consecutive Sundays. 7 Standard Chart: Dark Vertical Lines 7 Standard Chart: Duration Data Points Going Down 7 Standard Chart: Duration Data Points Going Up 7 Standard Chart: Left hand Y Axis 7 Standard Chart: Rate Data Points Going Down 7 Standard Chart: Rate Data Points Going Up 7 Standard Chart: Record Floor 7 7 7 7 Standard Chart: Right Hand Y Axis Standard Chart: X Axis Trend Variability 7 Vertical Axis Label 8 Behavioral Goal 8 Behavioral Objective (five elements) 8 Choice Availability 8 Constructional Approach 8 Environmental Changes to Reduce the Need for Tx 8 Fair Pair 8 Foundational Skills 8 Functional Goals 8 Intermediate outcomes 8 Program Design Relating to Implementers 8 Recommendations Regarding Interventions Sunday lines Duration is increasing Duration is decreasing Count per minute Rate is decreasing Rate is increasing Dash on a particular day that shows the duration the person was observed. Can be plotted by dividing 1/# min or using the right hand scale. Time Calendar Days Direction of the data points, described by a "trend line" Extent to which the data points vary from day to day, often expressed as the range of data points. Range is the highest value - lowest value. The measure of behavior Statement when behavioral program will be successful. Includes specific behaviors but not specific criteria for success. Should be age-appropriate. Precise description of when a program will be successful: Includes measure, criterion for success, antecedent, behavior, and consequences (schedule of reinforcement) when the program is completed. Extent to which clients are given choices about their lives and events therein. When choices are provided, fewer problem behaviors may be exhibited. Approach to decreasing inappropriate behavior by focusing on building new behaviors to replace inappropriate behaviors (replacement skills) Making changes in the environment that will reduce the need for a behavior program: find interesting job, satisfying places to live/recreate, network of friends, provide choices 1. ID the inappropriate behavior and program a procedure to directly decrease it 2. ID a replacement behavior and teach it These 2 elements constitute a "fair pair" Skill that must be taught before other skills can be taught Goals that will improve the life of the client and allow more independence and choice. If not accomplished, a caregiver will be required to perform the activity for the person. Goals that lead to ultimate outcomes Ex: learning to dress, ride the bus Design the Tx while keeping in mind the contingencies controlling the implementers behavior: will Tx be monitored, will staff receive feedback, etc. Consider: client preferences, task analysis info, client's current repertoire, supports available in environment, environmental constraints, social validity, assessments 8 Reinforcer Assessment Procedures 8 Task analysis 8 Ultimate outcomes 8 Weakening Behavior: Replacement skills 9 Adjusting Ratio 9 Alternative Schedule 9 Antecedent Manipulations (5) 9 Artificial v.s. Natural Contingencies 9 Backup Reinforcer 9 Backward Chaining 9 Behavioral Momentum: Applied 9 Behavioral Momentum: Laboratory 9 Behavioral Rehearsal 9 Chain Schedule 9 Chaining 9 Combined Prompts 9 Concept Formation 9 Concurrent Schedule (Conc) and best practice Test to see if the stimulus when presented contingent on a behavior, will increase the rate of the behavior - can use withdrawal design, reversal design, concurrent schedules Task in broken into smaller elements and elements are stated in their correct order Goals that relate to health, safety, choice, access to positive reinforcers, avoiding aversive events and quality of life. Select a replacement skill that is easy to emit and has the same function as the inappropriate behavior Ratio schedule in which size of the ratio increases as responding becomes more rapid and consistent, but decreases when responding deteriorates. A reinforcer is given when one of the two schedules is completed. There is only one response option. Food is given when Bill completes a FI1’ or FR 50, whichever comes first. 1. Antecedent control procedure 2. Establishing Operation 3. Present SDs for appropriate behavior 4. Remove SDs for inappropriate behavior 5. Increase response effort for inappropriate behavior Given a choice, a behavioral programmer should select contingencies that approximate those in the natural environment, rather than artificial contingencies. Where artificial contingencies must be used, however, they should be changed to more normal contingencies whenever possible. A reinforcer that is obtained by exchanging a token for it in token systems Teaching a sequence of responses by initially training the last response of the chain, the second to last and the last, etc. Reinforcer is delivered after the required number of steps are completed. Applied: Following low probability directions can be increased when they are proceeded by several high probability directions with reinforcers delivered after each. Laboratory: subjects behavior patterns and characteristics temporarily persist even when the contingencies are changed. Practicing a skill under stimulated conditions that approximate those in the natural environment. Two or more schedules are presented successively each with its own signal. A reinforcer is given only at the end of the sequence (FR10-FI1’-VR20-Reinforcer) Systematically linking together individual skills into a larger chain of skills. Prompts are given at the same time or just after the SD Generalization within a class of stimuli and discrimination between classes. E.g.. Learning to identify all canines as dogs and learning to discriminate between dogs and cats Two or more schedules are available simultaneously that 9 Conditioned suppression: ABA 9 Conditioned suppression: EAB 9 Conjunctive Schedule (Conj) 9 Contingency Contract 9 Contingent Effort 9 Contingent Observation 9 Continuous Reinforcement 9 Delayed Imitation 9 Delayed Prompts 9 Dependent Group Contingency 9 Differential Reinforcement 9 Direct Instruction 9 DRA 9 DRH 9 DRI 9 DRL can be selected (choose to work in workshop or watch TV) When the signal of an upcoming aversive event is on (you are waiting in the Dr office), ongoing responding is suppressed (it is hard to have an intelligent conversation in the DR office). Animal responds under VI schedule for food. Periodically, a stimulus comes on and then is soon followed by a shock. When the stimulus is on, responding for food is suppressed. A reinforcer is given when both of the two schedules are completed. There is only one response option. Food is given when Bill completes a FI 1’ and FR 50. Agreement between client and programmer that states specific behaviors by the client and what consequences will be forthcoming for each behavior. Any one of several procedures that involve requiring, contingent on a response, client to engage in an effortful activity. Contingent on Behavior, the person is removed from ongoing activities and permitted to observe same. Refers to a FR1 schedule wherein every response produces a reinforcer When a person imitates a model, but the model is no longer present. Prompts are given after a period of time elapses after the SD (gives the person a chance to perform independently) Reinforcer for a group depends on the behavior of a single person or small # of people When a reinforcement contingency depends on 1. presence or absence of a feature of a response, as in response differentiation -or- 2. the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus, as in discrimination training A method of teaching material such as reading and math that involves scripted presentations, active student participation, and immediate feedback from the teacher. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior. Reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a fixed amount of time. The response is chosen because it is an alternative to the target behavior but not necessarily incompatible. Differential Reinforcement of High Rates of Behaviors. Reinforcer is delivered for more than a fixed number of responses in a time period -or- Reinforcer is delivered after an IRT less than some criterion amount of time. Used to increase behavior. Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior. Reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a fixed amount of time. The response is chosen because it is incompatible with the target behavior. Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior. Reinforcer is delivered for no more than a fixed number of responses in a time period -or- Reinforcer is delivered after an IRT greater than some criterion amount of time. Used to decrease behavior. 9 DRO 9 DRO: Momentary 9 Empirical Assessment of Reinforcers 9 Errorless Discrimination 9 Exclusion Timeout 9 Extinction-Induced Aggression 9 Extra-stimulus Prompts 9 Facial Screening 9 Fading 9 Feedback 9 FI- Fixed Interval 9 Forced Choice Preference Assessment 9 Forward Chaining 9 FR-Fixed Ratio 9 FT- Fixed Time 9 General case analysis 9 Generalized Imitation 9 Generalized Reinforcer 9 Graduated Guidance 9 Incidental learning Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. Reinforcer is delivered when a response does not occur for a fixed (or varied in VDRO) amount of time. MDRO 5 min = observe person after 5 minutes, and if the decel target behavior is not occurring at the moment, then deliver some stimulus Present the possible reinforcer contingent on a behavior and see if the behavior is strengthened Teaching Discrimination with few or no errors. Ex: Fading in S-delta (incorrect stimulus) -or- superimposing a new set of stimuli on an already learned discrimination then fading out the already learned stimuli Timeout from reinforcement in which the person is removed from the immediate situation, but kept in the general area. Aggressive behavior that occurs when a behavior is being extinguished. Those prompts that are "outside" the SD, such as physical guidance to prompt hand washing Briefly covering the eyes or restricting visual input in some way, contingent on a behavior The gradual withdrawal of prompts, such that the SD alone evokes the desired behavior Providing information contingent on a behavior. Can function as reinforcement or punishment, depending on the nature of the information. Reinforcer delivered after the first response after a fixed amount of time has elapsed. Produces a scalloped rate of responding Present pairs of reinforcers and note which is selected. Pair each reinforcer with all others on the list of possible reinforcers. Teaching a sequence of responses by initially training the first response of the chain, then the first and second, etc. Reinforcer is presented after the required number of steps are completed. Reinforcer delivered after fixed number of responses. Produces steady, high rate of response with pauses after reinforcement A reinforcer is delivered after a fixed time , irrespective of behavior. When training for generalization, including all relevant stimuli/responses that might be encountered. For example, when training hand washing, all possible sink/soap combinations might be trained to prepare the person. Imitation skills that will occur even to untrained models. Reinforcer that is effective in many situations because it can be exchanged for a wide variety of backup reinforcers. Ex: tokens, money Give prompts were they are required, but immediately fade when a person begins to perform the response Learning that occurs in naturally occurring activities, not as a result of programmed, artificial learning trials. 9 Independent Group Contingency 9 Instructions 9 Interdependent Group Contingency 9 Isolation Timeout 9 Kinds of Prompts 9 Learn unit 9 Least-to-Most Prompting 9 Limited Hold 9 Maintenance 9 Maintenance procedures 9 Matching equation 9 Matching equation: 2 ways to decrease R1 9 Mixed Schedule 9 Model 9 Model Characteristics 9 Modeling 9 Molar (level) Systems 9 Momentary DRO Reinforcer is available for any person whose behavior meets a criterion Verbal descriptions of behavior and antecedents/consequences. Reinforcer is available if all people in the group meet a minimum criterion -or- the group's overall performance meets a criterion A timeout from reinforcement in which the person is placed in another location away from others Physical guidance, gestural, written, verbal, imitation (modeling) A concept in instruction in which the teacher presents an SD, there is active student responding, and the teacher provides feedback to the student. Ideally, learn units should occur frequently. Give SD and then wait for response to be performed. If it is not, give the least intrusive prompt first, then second least intrusive, etc. When reinforcer is available for the next response, that response has a limited amount of time to occur or the reinforcer is lost (FI 1’ LH10”) Extent to which a procedure can produce durable changes in behavior -or- a phase of acquisition that uses specially designed procedures to maintain an already-learned response 1. Thin schedules of reinforcement to increase RTE 2. Use natural reinforcers and stimuli 3. Train to fluency Equation that expresses a fundamental functional relation: the rate of response will be sensitive to the rate of reinforcement for that response as well as the rate of reinforcement for other responses Equation: R1 = r1 ---------------------------R1 + R2 r1 + r2 1) decrease the rate of reinforcement for R1 and 2) increase the rate of reinforcement for R2. Two or more independent schedules that are presented successively but each does not have its own signal. Independent schedules are those that program their own schedule of reinforcement. (Mix FR 10 FI 2') Some antecedent stimulus that is topographically identical to the behavior to be strengthened Characteristics that might influence whether a model's behavior will be imitated: model similarity, prestige of model, emphasis on modeled behaviors, how nurturing the model is, and instructions. Providing a model for another person to imitate. Level System wherein clients begin at bottom level and then work their way up to higher levels. Each level has its own behavioral criteria for entry and its own collection of reinforcers. DRO schedule in which reinforcer is delivered if the target 9 Most-to-Least Prompting 9 Multiple Schedule (Mult) 9 Negative Contrast 9 Negative Practice 9 Observation in preference assessment 9 Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) 9 Planned Ignoring 9 Polydipsia 9 Positive Contrast 9 Positive Practice Overcorrection 9 Post-Reinforcement Pause 9 Precision Teaching 9 Predictability 9 Preference assessment: Forced choice 9 Preference assessment: Multiple stimulus 9 Preference assessment: Single stimulus behavior is not occurring at the moment the DRO interval terminates. Present the prompt at maximum intensity, and gradually use a less intense prompt over successive trials. Two or more schedules that are presented successively each with their own signal (1st period has FR10 attention for tasks, 2nd period with different teacher has Ext for task completion). (Mult FR 10 Ext) Behavior in a changed situation increases, resulting in a decrease of the behavior in an unchanged situation. Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring client to engage in that behavior repeatedly. Has been used in smoking cessation. Observe a person in free time and record what they do Material is broken down into units and each unit has its own study objectives. Students work at their own pace, study the material and then take an exam. Students must meet mastery criterion on an exam and may re-take exams until criterion is met. Behavior maintained by social reinforcers, and such reinforcers are withheld for a given period of time contingent on the behaviors. Excessive drinking - generated by schedules of food delivery. Rats under a FT 1 min schedule will drink up to 4-5 times their body weight in water. Also seen in FI schedules. Behavior in a changed situation decreases, resulting in an increase of the behavior in an unchanged situation. Typically, the behavior in the changed situation is decreased with extinction or punishment. Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring person to practice the appropriate behavior that should have occurred. Ex: if a child wets his pants, he will then practice standing up and walking to the bathroom. A brief pause of responding immediately after reinforcement under fixed-ratio or variable ratio schedules. Is sometimes called the pre-ratio pause, as the pause duration is determined by the size of the upcoming ratio. Using behavioral teaching methods and the standard chart. Used in behavior programs to decrease problem behavior. This can involve written or picture schedules of upcoming events. Present person with pairs of reinforcers, and note which one is selected. Pair each reinforcer with all of the others on the list of possible reinforcers. Graph the # times each item is selected. Multiple stimulus with (or without) replacement – present an array and record how often an item is selected. The without replacement can be used to rank order preference. Present a single stimulus, and see if person contacts it. Or, record the latency or duration of contact. 9 Preference Assessment: Types 9 Premack Principle 9 Probe Trials 9 Procedural integrity DV 9 Progressive Ratio 9 Progressive ratio break point 9 Progressive Relaxation 9 Prompts 9 Public Commitment 9 Punishment Guidelines for Efficacy (7 guidelines) 9 Punishment Side Effects (x5) 9 Rank Order Preferences 9 Ratio Strain 9 Reducing a response using matching law 9 Reflexivity 9 Rehearsal 1. Interviews 2. Free operant - see what person contacts in free time 2. Single stimulus 3. Forced choice 4. Arrays with/without replacement Procedure in which high probability behavior can be used to reinforce low probability behavior and low probability behavior can be used to punish high probability behavior A method of measuring generalization in which the behavior is measured in untrained situations. The typical DV is % of competencies correctly displayed. Ratio Schedule in which the ratio size gradually increases over time. This schedule is sometimes used to assess reinforcer effectiveness. To do so, the "break point" is identified - when the organism stops responding. In a PR schedule, the break point is the last ratio size completed before the organism stops responding. In reinforcer assessments, the higher the break point, the more effective is the reinforcer. Technique of relaxation wherein the person relaxes various muscle groups. When completed, the person is able to totally relax all major muscle groups under the control of a cue. An extra antecedent stimulus that is used to evoke a behavior such that it can then be reinforced Person designing his/her own self-control program enlisting the contingency management support of friends or family. a. Immediate after the target behavior b. Consistent- punish every response (FR1) c. Provide alternative behavior that obtains same reinforcer d. Do not allow reinforcer to follow to closely after punisher e. Use High Intensity Punisher f. Withhold all reinforcers that can be produced by the target behavior g. Punisher should be linked to assessment data. a. Escape from the punishing agent b. Aggression towards punishing agent c. Emotional behavior d. Modeling by observers e. Inappropriate generalization – person afraid to do anything. Analyze choices to determine the most and least preferred items. Formula is # times an item is selected divided by total number of pairs in which the item appeared then multiply the total by 100. A decrease in responding under a ratio schedule because ratio size is too large or was increased to rapidly 1. Decrease rate of reinforcement for the response 2. Increase rate of reinforcement for other responses If A=A, then A=A Practicing a behavior to be learned 9 Reinforcer Menu 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 A visual display of several reinforcers from which the person may choose Reinforcer Sampling Requiring a person to sample various reinforcers, such that he/she has sufficient experience with them to choose the preferred reinforcer Reinforcer Survey Ask people about their preferences. Now more correctly referred as a preference assessment. Relation between reinforcer effectiveness and Reinforcer effectiveness increases with shorter delay, delay, amount, quality, deprivation, and larger amounts, higher quality, greater deprivation, and variety. greater variety. Required Relaxation Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring person to lie down and relax in quiet area for a period of time. Resistance to extinction: schedule effects Extinction after dense schedules (FR 1): rapid. Extinction after lean schedules (VR 100): slow Response Cost Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, the removal of a reinforcing object (radio, token, magazine). Response Deprivation Procedures Procedure that involves depriving an organism of the opportunity to emit a response and then using the opportunity to emit the response as a potential reinforcer for other behavior. Response Differentiation A use of differential reinforcement to change a characteristic of behavior. For example, a father may only listen to his son when the son talks about sports. As a result, the son frequently talks sports. Response Generalization Effects of some contingency spread to responses not yet associated with the contingency. Restitutional Overcorrection Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring the person to restore the environment to a condition superior to that before the behavior occurred. Rules for Designing a Token System -base it on functional assessments -ID tokens that are easily used -ID target behaviors and rules for obtaining tokens -ID schedule of token exchange -ID how tokens will be conditioned as reinforcers -field test the system and fine tune as needed Schedule Induced (adjunctive) Behavior. Behavior that seems to appear because it is under a schedule of reinforcement. E.g. Some organisms will exhibit aggression under FR 50 schedules of food delivery, rats will exhibit copious drinking when exposed to FI 1 schedules of food delivery. Schedule of reinforcement A rule that specifies when a reinforcer will be delivered. Schedule Thinning Gradually decreasing the rate of reinforcement. In a FR schedule, the FR size increases. In a FI schedule, the time requirement increases. Self Control Involves procedures that are implemented by the client. Typically requires some external source of contingency management. Self Management Another term for self control. The person actively participates in the recording, goal setting, or reinforcement procedures. Self-Punishment Client decides if their behavior meets criteria for punishment and delivers the punisher (or arranges for its delivery) if it does. 9 Self-Recording 9 Self-reinforcement 9 Shadowing 9 Shaping 9 Side Effects of Negative Reinforcement 9 Side Effects of Positive Reinforcement 9 Simple Schedules of Reinforcement 9 Social Validity 9 Spatial Fading 9 Stimulus Equivalence 9 Stimulus Generalization 9 Stimulus Over-Selectivity 9 Stimulus Shaping 9 Superstitious Behavior 9 Symmetry 9 Tandem Schedule 9 Target Setting 9 Task interspersal 9 Task Variation Client decides if and when their own behavior meets a criterion, and then recording the behavior if it does. Clients decides if behavior meets criteria for reinforcement and delivers the reinforcer (or arranges for its delivery) if it does. When the trainer moves his/ her hands along with the client's hands as he performs the skill. Gradually changing the form or topography of a behavior by reinforcing successive approximations to the correct response Similar to punishment side effects: escape from aversive stimuli, aggression, emotional behavior, etc. Schedule-induced aggression, frequent requests for reinforcer (nagging), "shadowing" the source of reinforcement, attempts to escape schedule when the requirements are high (e.g., high FR schedules). Single schedules such as FR, VR, FI, VI, FT, VT Whether goals, procedures, and outcomes are acceptable. This can be determined by asking community members, experts, competent individuals, family or the client. Gradually changing the spatial locus of a prompt during fading. E.g. going from hand, to wrist, to forearm, etc. When a class of stimuli evoke the same responses or more generally have the same effects on behavior. Stimuli that evoke the response "dog" include 1. word dog 2. picture of dog 3. sight of dog 4. sound of dog barking Effects of some contingency spread to stimuli that have not been associated with the contingency. The tendency of lower functioning individuals to attend to one and only one element of a complex SD. With a red A and blue B, the individual may only attend to the colors and fail to attend to the letters. Involves transfer of stimulus control from an already effective stimulus to a new stimulus. E.g. using two apples to teach number 2 and then fading them into the number 2. Behavior that occurs as a result of "accidental" or adventitious reinforcement. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it. If A=B, then B=A Two or more schedules that are presented successively, but there is no signal for each. A reinforcer is given only at the end of the sequence Setting to which a client will be placed after behavioral programming has finished. Setting to which generalization efforts are directed In instruction, difficult tasks should be presented and interspersed with easier tasks (such as maintenance tasks). The extent to which tasks are varied in a block of time. There is some research that suggests rapidly varying the tasks may engender improved learning. 9 Teaching VB using transfer of stimulus control 1. Teach echoics or textuals 2. Use echoics or textuals as prompts when teaching mands, tacks, intraverbals 3. Fade use of echoics or textuals as prompts 9 Timeout Time out from reinforcement – signaling the removal of opportunity to earn reinforcement for a period of time, contingent on inappropriate behavior. 9 Tokens Generalized conditioned reinforcers that when earned can be exchanged for other reinforcers, or backup reinforcers. Benefits: quickly & easily delivered, exchanged for a variety of backup reinforcers. 9 Total Task Training When an entire task is trained at once, instead of implementing a chaining procedure. Usually includes graduated guidance 9 Train Loosely for Generalization During training, vary the environment such that there is not narrow stimulus control over the skill. This procedure tends to flatten the generalization gradient. 9 Transfer of Stimulus Control When one stimulus can evoke a response, and then that capacity is transferred to a second stimulus 9 Transitivity If A=B and B=C, then A=C 9 VI-Variable Interval Reinforcement delivered after the first response after an average amount of time has elapsed. Produces a steady, medium rate of response with little pausing. 9 VR-Variable Ratio Reinforcement delivered after average number of responses. Produces a steady, very high rate of response with brief, if any, pauses after reinforcement 9 VT- Variable Time A reinforcer is delivered after a variable amount of time (average) irrespective of behavior. 9 Ways to Encourage Maintenance (6 ways) -train to fluency -use naturally occurring stimuli -fade out artificial stimuli -use delayed consequences -use self-control repertoires -use intermittent schedules of reinforcement 9 Ways to Program Generalization (8 ways) -Instructions – train a response and give instruction to encourage generalization -Train in many stimulus conditions. -Design supportive environment-untrained situations. -Train loosely -Program common stimuli -Delayed/intermittent reinforcement -Self Management -Use a variety of prosthetic devices 9 Within-stimulus Prompts Those prompts that are contained within the SD, such as isolating and exaggerating the critical difference between an "E" and "F" 10 Competency based training The kind of training that is essential in staff training and management. This training involves a needs assessment, learning objectives, performance criteria, training procedures (instruction, simulations, in vivo training), and on-line feedback. Training systems observe the principles of behavior that are found in CBA class. 10 Counter control Attempts by the subjects of behavior programming to change the behavior of the programmer. For example, 10 Information sharing and display 10 Obtain Support from Others 10 Outcomes management 10 Performance Monitoring Systems 10 Procedural Integrity 10 Staff training: best practice 10 Support for behavior analysis services students learned to train their teachers to deliver more praise and positive comments. Information about behavior analysis services should be provided to those directly involved (clients, trainers, parents), and to those who have a legitimate interest (educational/governmental officials, administrators). When sharing data with non-professionals, the display should be easily interpreted (avoid 6 cycle graphs consider bar graphs). To maintain a client's behavior, you should secure support from those in their natural environment and work in collaboration with others who are involved with the client. When feedback is given to participants and the feedback depends on an outcome (some permanent product such as $ made, skills taught, etc). Systems designed to encourage and maintain appropriate staff behavior. They involve objectively defined job descriptions, sufficient training in the job, online frequent feedback, and a system of incentives for excellent performance Collecting data on the extent to which the program is being implemented correctly. Contingencies are used to maintain and shape behavior of implementers. Explanation, demonstration, and feedback on their implementation. It is particularly important to have them practice the skills and receive feedback. A behavior analyst should enlist support for her/his technology from those who are directly affected by the services and by those only indirectly affected, but who may have decision power over them (administrators, educational/government officials, advocacy committee, HRS, popular media). Such support can be obtained by educational programs, and feedback/outcome measures that show cost effectiveness of the technology.