Contentarea Term Answer 1 Approval of programs For restrictive

1 Approval of programs
1 Bill of Rights of the Retarded & other rights
1 Components and limitations of emergency
1 Confidentiality
1 Emergency procedures
1 Emergency situations
1 HRSM 160-4
1 Informed consent
1 Least restrictive treatment
1 Normalization
1 Procedure selection (5 issues)
For restrictive programs, informed consent should be
obtained where appropriate; informed consent may be
circumvented if the client is in serious danger, if the
treatment has a reasonable chance of success, and if
there are procedural safeguards in place. Approval
should also be obtained by a BCBA or LRC chair as
stated in 65-G.
Developmentally disabled individuals should be afforded
basic rights, including the right to medical care, privacy,
central file, habilitation plan, personal belongings, due
process, freedom from unnecessary restraints or cruel
and unusual punishment, etc.
a. Should be accompanied by active programming
b. Use only when absolutely necessary
c. Behaviors and precursors should be clearly defined
d. Train staff in how to implement - consider logistical
e. Ensure adequate staff
f. Ensure reporting, monitoring, and evaluation
g. Avoid or minimize negative side effects - avoid
dangerous confrontations when possible
Attempt to keep a client's personal information away from
public view, to be released only with consent of the client
or guardian
Procedures designed to protect the person, others or the
environment from immediate harm, not as therapeutic
interventions. Two types: 1. immediate restraint 2.
immediate isolation
Situations that present a risk to the client or others.
Three types: 1. behavior that is totally unexpected 2.
behavior that is low frequency (< 6/year) 3. behavior that
must be managed until a program is in place
Behavior Management Guidelines maintained by
Developmental Services of HRS. Specifies the range of
aversive procedures that can be used and the approval
requirements thereof.
Required when restrictive procedures are used. For
informed consent, the person must be 1. informed of
cost/benefits and alternatives 2. capable of giving
consent 3. voluntarily giving consent. The person must
have the opportunity to withdraw consent at any time.
Using treatment that minimizes suspension of basic rights
or freedoms. The "least restrictive treatment" that has a
reasonable change of success should be used.
Living environments and treatment procedures should be
used that are most like those applied to normal
A behavioral programmer should consider the following
issues in selecting a procedure: Use the least restrictive
procedure; use the most normal procedure; are staff
trained to implement procedure; is there a competent
behavior analyst to supervise; and is there support for the
1 Program Review Process
2 Analytic
2 Applied
2 Applied Behavior Analysis vs Experimental
Analysis of Behavior
2 Assumptions/Characteristics of Science
2 Automatic reinforcement
2 Behavioral
2 Behavioral Technologies
2 Behaviorism
2 Characteristics of ABA
2 Conceptually Systematic
2 Dependent Variable
2 Determinism
2 Effective
2 Empiricism
2 Explanatory Fiction/Circular Reasoning
procedure by significant others
LRC (Local Review Committee): approves restrictive
behavior programs in its DCF district.
PRC (Peer Review Committee): comprises experts in the
field, provides technical assistance
HRAC (Human Rights Advocacy Committee): attempts to
ensure that basic client rights are protected
Characteristic of ABA. Scientifically based experimental
designs are used to assess the effectiveness of
interventions under study.
Characteristic of ABA. Focuses on behavior with social
Both use systematic manipulations and data analysis of
individual organisms.
ABA: Behaviors of social significance to the person are
EAB: Behaviors of no social significance of the person
are investigated
1. Determinism
2. Law of Parsimony
3. Scientific Manipulation
4. Empiricism
5. Philosophic Doubt
6. Replication
A reinforcer that is produced by the behavior without the
participation of other people. For example, echolalia
produces sounds that may maintain the behavior. It can
be positive or negative reinforcement.
Characteristic of ABA. Behavior is the focus, not a
hypothetical entity.
Collection of procedures that have arisen from research
and are applied to practical problems by practitioners.
Ex: behavioral momentum is now implemented by many
service providers in clinics, schools, and homes
Philosophy of behavior that assumes behavior is a
function of current and past environments as well as
1. Effective
2. Technological
3. Conceptually Systematic
4. Generality
5. Analytic
6. Applied
7. Behavioral
Characteristic of ABA. Procedures are tied to the basic
principles of behavior.
Measure of behavior of interest
Assumption of Science. Behavior is caused by some
Characteristic of ABA. Attempt to produce large enough
effect that has an impact on the person's life.
Assumption of Science. Information is collected by
objective observations
Explaining behavior by using entity that lies within the
2 Generality
2 Inadequate Explanations of Behavior
2 Independent Variable
2 Law of Parsimony
2 Mentalistic Explanations of Behavior
2 Nominal Fallacy
2 Philosophic Doubt
2 Private Events
2 Reification
2 Scientific Manipulation
2 Social Significance
2 Systematic Manipulation
2 Technological
2 Teleology
2 What is Behaviorism?
2 What is the difference between Applied and
Experimental Analysis?
3 Abative effect
3 Abolishing Operations
3 Adventitious Reinforcement
behavior itself. (Eric is aggressive because he has an
aggressive trait. Evidence of aggressive trait is his
aggressive behavior)
Extent to which the results or functional relations will be
observed if the experiment is changed in some way. Can
be tested by implementing the Tx with different Ss,
settings, behaviors, or species.
1. Nominal Fallacy
2. Teleology
3. Reification
4. Circular reasoning
Treatment or intervention
Assumption of Science. The simplest explanation of
behavior should be provided, all else being equal
Explanations that appeal to mental, unobservable
processes. Ex: The child was aggressive due to his
frustration with school.
Explaining behavior by naming or classifying it (The
behavior is PICA to explain eating inedible objects)
Assumption of Science. Conclusions of science are
tentative and can be revised as new data comes to light.
Behavior and/or stimuli that can only be observed by the
person. (Ex: headaches) These behaviors and stimuli
still must be explained by appealing to a history of
environmental contingencies or biological processes.
Explaining behavior by appealing to non-existent entity
(ID, ego, self, etc.)
Characteristic of Science. Systematically manipulating
an event to see effects on behavior
Characteristic of Applied Behavior Analysis whereas the
behavior is socially significant to the person as well as the
changes that occur.
Assumption of science. To see if an event affects
behavior, the event is systematically manipulated and the
effects on behavior are noted.
Characteristic of ABA. Provides written detail of
procedures to permit replication of techniques in other
Explaining behavior by appealing to future,
unexperienced events (I am doing my homework to
Philosophy of behavior that assumes that behavior is a
function of past and current events as well as genetics.
The difference is that with Applied the behaviors have
social significance to the person being investigated
whereas with Experimental Analysis they do not.
When a stimulus causes an immediate weakening of a
response. Term applies to the effect of an S-delta or
1. Decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of some
2. Decreases the strength of the behavior that has
produced that stimulus in the past
Refers to accidental reinforcement, results in
3 Antecedent
3 Audience
3 Autoclitic
3 Avoidance behavior
3 Behavior
3 Behavior contrast: negative
3 Behavior contrast: positive
3 Collateral Measures
3 Concurrent superstition
3 Conditioned Motivative Operations (CMO)
3 Conditioned Reinforcer (punisher)
3 Consequence
3 Contingency
3 Contingency Shaped Behavior
3 CR
3 CS
3 Cycle
3 Dead Man’s Test
3 Deprivation
3 Discrete Trials
3 Discriminated Operant
superstitious behavior. In this kind of reinforcement, the
reinforcer is not produced by the response, but
nontheless occurs after it. Ex: Pitcher wears socks and
has good game, then wears sock at all games.
Event before the behavior
The individual(s) who provides the reinforcement for VB.
The audience is an SD for the VB.
VB that is used to modify the effect of other VB on the
listener ("You are moving really slowly")
Avoidance behavior that is reinforced by the
postponement or avoidance of an aversive stimulus
(negative reinforcer).
Interaction of a person and his/her environment. Action
of the muscles and/or glands
When a treated behavior increases (e.g., ext or
punishment), and the same untreated behavior in another
situation decreases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied
in multiple schedules.
When a treated behavior decreases (e.g., ext or
punishment), and the same untreated behavior in another
situation increases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied
in multiple schedules.
Change over delay - when a concurrent superstition
occurs, a delay is programmed after the first behavior
occurs to eliminate the superstition.
Measures of behaviors other than the primary target
When a behavior (e.g., tantrum) is maintained by the
reinforcer for another behavior (e.g., mand for food).
Have the same effects that motivative operations have,
but are due to a conditioning history
A consequence that increases (or decreases) the rate of
behavior because it has been paired with another
reinforcer (or punisher)
Event that occurs after the behavior
Dependency among behavior and stimuli or among
stimuli. Can be expressed as an If-Then Statement.
Behavior that occurs because it has resulted from direct
exposure to contingencies.
Conditioned Response – a response elicited by a
conditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus – a neutral stimulus that comes to
elicit a conditioned response through pairing with a US
Specifies when a behavior begins and when it ends.
Test for evaluating whether a goal or objective is viable.
If a dead man can do it, then it may not be a functional,
useful goal.
Absence of reinforcer for a period of time, thereby
making that event more effective as a reinforcer.
An instructional method wherein the client is presented
with formal opportunity to perform behavior.
Consequence is provided depending on behavior.
Behavior that requires some "opportunity" or specific
antecedent to occur. Ex: in order to follow directions,
3 Discrimination
3 Discrimination Training
3 Echoic
3 Environment
3 Escape behavior
3 Escape Extinction
3 Establishing Operation
3 Evocative effect
3 Extinction
3 Extinction Side-Effects
3 Free Operant
3 Functional equivalence
3 Functional Response Definition
3 Function-altering
3 Function-altering: Operant conditioning
3 Function-altering: Respondent conditioning
3 Function-altering: Rules
3 Fundamental Characteristics of Behavior
3 Generalization Gradient
3 Intraverbal
there must first be a direction given.
Refers to a change in observed behavior when
antecedent stimuli are changed
Reinforcing a behavior in the presence of some
antecedent and extinguishing (or punishing) the behavior
in the absence of the antecedent.
Verbal behavior under antecedent control of prior verbal
stimulus. Point to point correspondence between the
antecedent stimulus and the response. (imitative
Entire constellation of stimuli that can affect a person
(includes both internal/external)
Escape behavior is behavior that is reinforced by
escaping from a aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer)
Extinction of a negatively reinforced behavior.
Withholding escape.
1. Increases the reinforcing effectiveness of some
2. Increases the strength of the behavior that has
produced that stimulus in the past
When a stimulus causes an immediate strengthening of a
response. Term applies to the effect of an SD, CS, or
Withholding a stimulus that normally occurs after a
behavior, resulting in a decrease in the rate of behavior.
Extinction burst, emotional behavior, aggression,
increase in variety of topographies, increase in intensity
of behavior
Behavior that can occur at anytime, given some
When two or more behaviors have the same effect (they
belong to the same operant). This concept is often used
in identifying a replacement behavior.
Includes the topography of response as well as the
functional antecedents and/or consequences.
The concept that conditioning (and rules) alters the
function of stimuli. For example, discrimination training
creates SDs. And, reinforcement creates EO s.
Reinforcement alters the function of neutral stimuli and
results in the emergence of SDs and EO s.
The pairing of a NS and US results in a change of the NS
function - it becomes a CS.
Rules create new CSs, SDs, conditioned reinforcers, EO
s, etc.
1. Temporal locus
2. Temporal extent
3. Repeatability
Rate, Latency, Duration are derived from this.
A graph that shows the frequency of a behavior in various
stimulus conditions, one of which is the "training" situation
and then other similar but untrained "test" situations.
Verbal behavior evoked by some antecedent verbal
stimulus, but without point to point correspondence (ex:
3 Mand
3 Motivational Operation (2 effects)
3 Motivational operation: distal
3 Motivational operation: proximal
3 Negative Punisher
3 Negative Reinforcement
3 Negative Reinforcer
3 NS
3 Operant
3 Operant Conditioning
3 Positive Punisher
3 Positive Reinforcement
3 Positive Reinforcer
3 Primary Reinforcer
3 Reflexive CMO
3 Resistance to Extinction
3 Respondent (classical) Conditioning
3 Respondent Extinction
3 Response
3 Response class covariation
3 Response Definition
3 Response Generalization
red white and_____)
Verbal behavior that specifies its reinforcer and is evoked
by some establishing operation. (asking for)
1. Changes the reinforcing effectiveness of some
2. Changes the strength of behavior that has produced
that stimulus in the past
An MO that is temporally removed from a behavior - for
example, several hours prior to the behavior that is
An MO that occurs close in time to a behavior
Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior,
decreases the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will
Process in which a stimulus is withdrawn after a behavior,
and the rate of the behavior increases.
Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, increases
the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will decrease.
Neutral Stimulus – stimulus that does not elicit a
response prior to conditioning
A collection of responses with a common effect on the
environment. Ex: child may do a variety of things to
obtain attention.
Kind of learning where a class of behavior (operant) is
modified by changing its consequences.
A stimulus that when presented after a behavior,
decreases the rate of behavior. The IRTs would
Process in which a stimulus is presented after a behavior
and the rate of the behavior increases. The IRTs would
Stimulus that when presented after a behavior, increases
the rate of the behavior. Note that the IRT will decrease.
Reinforcer effective without previous experience (food,
Have their effects because their presence signals a
"worsening" or "improvement" of conditions. In the
former, their offset is reinforcing. In the latter, their offset
is punishing.
The extent to which behavior persists when the
maintaining reinforcer is withheld. Abbreviation: RTE
Kind of learning in which one stimulus is paired with a
second stimulus and, as a result, the first comes to elicit
the same or similar response that the second elicits
Decrease in the strength of a CR as a result of presenting
the CS alone
A single instance of a behavioral class.
Operants contain various topographies. If the strength of
one member of the operant is changed by reinforcement
or punishment, then the strength of the other members is
changed as well.
Description of a response that is in objective and
observable terms
Effects of a contingency spread to responses not yet
3 Rule-Governed Behavior
3 Rules
3 Satiation
3 SD
3 S-delta
3 Sensory Extinction
3 Skinner’s Verbal Behavior
3 Social Extinction
3 Social Learning Theory
3 Spontaneous Recovery
3 Stimulus
3 Stimulus Class
3 Stimulus Control
3 Stimulus Generalization
3 Superstitious Behavior
3 Surrogate CMO
3 Tact
associated with the contingency.
Behavior resulting from rules rather than direct exposure
to contingencies. For example a person may put together
a bike using the instruction manual.
Contingency-specifying stimuli that describe relations
between stimuli or between stimuli and behavior
Decrease in responding due to the reduced effectiveness
of the reinforcer, because the person has received too
much of it.
Stimulus that 1. evokes a behavior 2. because that
behavior has been reinforced in the presence of the
A stimulus that 1. suppresses a behavior 2. because that
behavior has been extinguished in the presence of the
Stimulus that 1. decreases or suppresses a behavior 2.
because that behavior has been punished in the
presence of the stimulus.
Extinction of a behavior maintained by sensory
reinforcers. The sensory reinforcers are withheld.
A system of language that classifies verbal behavior
according to its function.
Extinction of a behavior maintained by social reinforcers.
Withholding social reinforcement.
Theory of learning that posits learning occurs as a result
of observations that subsequently affect the person
through cognitive mediational processes.
Following an extinction session, a temporary reappearance of the behavior in the beginning of the next
extinction session. It is thought that the re-appearance is
due to the relative novelty of the "beginning of the
session" that was only briefly experienced in the previous
An energy change in the environment that affects a
person through his/her senses.
Collection of stimuli with a common characteristic. Ex:
any stimulus that evokes tantrums, or any stimulus of a
certain wavelength.
The extent to which a behavior occurs when the
antecedent stimulus is presented. EX: Mom has
stimulus control over a child's tantrums to the extent that
the child tantrums in the presence of mom, and does not
tantrum in her absence.
Effects of a contingency spread to stimuli not yet
associated with the contingency.
Behavior that occurs due to accidental or adventitious
reinforcement. In this kind of reinforcement, the
reinforcer is not produced by the response, but
nontheless occurs after it.
A surrogate CMO has its effect because of a history of
pairing with an MO, and these effects mimic those of the
Verbal behavior that is evoked by some non-verbal
environmental stimulus (naming)
3 Tact extensions
3 Target Behavior
3 Textual
3 Topographical Response Definition
3 Topography of Response
3 Transitive CMO
3 Unconditioned Reinforcer
3 UR
3 US
3 Verbal behavior
4 Antecedent Manipulation
4 Baseline
4 Behavioral Assessment
4 Complete Behavioral Support Plan
4 Conditional probability
4 Contextual Variables (setting events)
4 Descriptive Assessment
4 Direct Solutions to Behavior Problems
4 Ecological Changes
4 Functional Analysis
4 Functional analysis best practice: how many
controls to use
Generic, metaphor, metonomy, solistic - degrees of
generalization of the tact
Behavior to be changed.
Verbal behavior evoked by some written stimulus with
some point to point correspondence
Includes only description of the form, or topography, of
the response.
Form of response (e.g. kicking, hitting,)
Change the reinforcing value of some other stimulus, and
change the strength of behavior that has produced that
stimulus in the past.
A reinforcer that is effective without previous experience.
Ex: food, drinks
Unconditioned Response- response elicited by an
unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus – stimulus that elicits a behavior
w/o any history.
Behavior that is maintained by reinforcement mediated by
another person.
Adding or removing antecedents that evoke behaviors
Pre-intervention assessment that is used to refine
recording procedures, design the intervention and provide
data with which to compare intervention data when
evaluating intervention effects.
Assessment that examines the person's entire life in
order to identify possible causes of the behavior in
question. You may use descriptive assessment methods
or functional analyses.
4 Elements: motivational operations, discriminative
control, replacement behaviors and consequence
The likelihood of an event occurring, given another event
(e.g., how often a behavior occurs, given an antecedent).
Formula: #A--> B/ # A OR # B --> C/# B.
Variables that are more generally present stimuli that are
not necessarily manipulated as part of a behavior change
program. May influence the efficacy of behavioral
procedures. Ex: medical status, task variation, number of
staff, etc.
Includes: records review, interviews of clients or
significant others, and direct observations. The goal is to
identify patterns of behavior, topographies and
frequencies in order to develop an hypothesis
Solutions to behavior problems that do not involve formal
behavior programs. Ex: treating a medical condition,
removing an antecedent stimulus, changing some feature
of the environment, etc.
Changing schedules, staffing patterns, activities, diet, etc.
Manipulation of environmental conditions to determine a
functional relation between problem behavior and
independent variables. Goal is to confirm hypothesis
developed in descriptive assessment.
Use one control for each test (pair wise)
4 Functional analysis best practice: natural vs Natural
contrived environments
4 Functional analysis best practice: role of
To develop an hypothesis
supplemental information
4 Functional analysis best practice: what to do If descriptive assessment does not indicate behavior
with tangible condition
occurs to produce tangibles, then don't include in test
4 Functional analysis models
AB and ABC
4 Functional analysis on high intensity behavior Look at the latency to the first response in the condition.
Then end the condition. Or, just study precursors.
4 Functional analysis: AB model
FA in which an EO is manipulated (task vs no task;
frequent attention vs low attention). No consequences
are presented when behavior occurs.
4 Functional analysis: ABC model
FA in which consequences are manipulated. Attention
condition: FR 1 attention for problem behavior. Tangible
condition: FR 1 tangible for problem behavior.
4 Functional analysis: brief
An FA that involves 1 or 2 sessions
4 Functional Analysis: Multi-Component
Arranging for particular conditions/situations (task, alone,
enriched environment, etc) and measuring behavior.
Reinforcers may be provided for problem behavior.
4 Functional analysis: Pair wise
When a particular test condition (e.g., FR 1 attention) has
a corresponding control condition (e.g., continuous
attention). A pair wise is often used to test a particular
hypothesis (e.g., is the behavior maintained by
4 Functional analysis: role of precursors
Can be the DV if the problem behavior is dangerous.
4 Functional analysis: undifferentiated data
This suggests that the behavior is under multiple control
(there is more than 1 operant) - or it may suggest that
there is some idiosyncratic variable that is maintaining the
behavior in all conditions.
4 Interventions that follow from assessment
Ecological changes, antecedent manipulation,
replacement skills, change consequences of appropriate
and inappropriate behaviors, emergency procedures,
motivational operations
4 Lag sequential analysis
When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be
between an A and B, or between a B and C. Formula for
A and B: Prob(A-->B)/Prob(A). Formula for B and C:
4 Lag sequential analysis: Lag 1
When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be
between an A and B, or between a B and C. Lag 1 refers
to the fact that the CP examines the A just before the B,
or the C just after the B.
4 Lag sequential analysis: Lag 2
When conditional probabilities are calculated. It can be
between an A and B, or between a B and C. Lag 2 refers
to the fact that the CP examines the A that is two
antecedents before the B, or the C that is two
consequences after the B.
4 Pattern Analysis
Looking for patterns of behavior, noting any kind of
correlation of behavior and some other factor. Ex: time of
day, staff, curriculum, etc. Common type of pattern
analysis is scatterplot.
4 Replacement Skills
New skills that are taught to replace target behaviors in
order to obtain the same reinforcer
4 Sequence Analysis
Identifying events that typically precede and follow a
4 Testing Hypothesis in Functional Analysis
5 Alternating Treating (multi-element) Design
5 Between subject designs
5 Changing Criterion
5 Component Analysis
5 Confounding Variable
5 Correlation
5 Deductive Processes
5 Direct Replication
5 Experimental Design
5 External Validity
5 Functional Relation
5 Inductive processes
5 Integrity of the Independent Variable
5 Internal Validity
5 Multiple Baseline (3)
5 Multiple Probe
5 Parametric Analysis
target behavior. Also called ABC Analysis.
Conditions are arranged to test the hypothesis. Ex: high
v.s. low attention conditions to assess behavior thought to
occur for attention
Two or more treatments with their own signal, alternated
across time - usually in the same day.
Participants only receive 1 condition (e.g., BL or TX).
The mean of each group is typically reported.
A design in which criterion in reinforcement is
systematically changed. Control is shown when changes
in behavior shadow changes in criterion.
Taking treatment apart and identifying which component
is the effective component. Can be accomplished by
slowly taking each element out -or- by starting with a
single element and slowly adding each element.
Uncontrolled variables or events that influence the
outcome of an experiment. Often accompany the IV and
thus are indistinguishable form the IV.
Two events co-vary. One may cause the second, the
second may cause the first, or both may be caused by a
third variable.
Testing hypothesis by collecting data in systematic
manipulation format.
Repeating the exact experiment with the same (intrasubject) or similar subjects (inter-subject). When used
with the same participant, allows for assessment of
internal validity.
A sequence of conditions that permit conclusions about
whether the changes in behavior resulted from the
Extent to which intervention can be successfully applied
to other people, other situations, or other behaviors.
Also termed generality.
When an independent variable lawfully affects a
dependent variable
Generating a hypothesis from data that has already been
Refers to the extent to which the treatment is
implemented as intended.
Whether or not changes in behavior can be attributed to
the intervention. AB designs lack strong internal validity,
but ABA or ABAB designs have strong internal validity.
Baseline data are collected on two or more subjects,
situations, or behaviors. Intervention is applied to the
first, and then the first and second, etc.
Multiple baseline design except that untreated behaviors
are assessed periodically through probes until they
receive the intervention.
Studying different values or levels of a treatment. Can be
accomplished by randomly presenting the different values
in a ABCDEF design varied across participants -or- by
presenting the values in an ascending/descending series
in ABCDEDCBA design. This design is often used in
drug studies.
5 Practical Issues with Alternating Treatments
Effects of one treatment can be seen in other conditions
due to rapid alternation. If treatment procedures are not
discriminable, differences may not be evident in data.
Practical Issues with Changing Criterion
Not all behaviors/treatments can be studied with this
design. In some cases, a reinforcement parameter may
be able to be varied.
Practical Issues with Multiple Baseline Design Requires untreated behaviors, participants or settings
which could be dangerous. Internal validity can be
unclear when generalization occurs.
Practical Issues with Withdrawal & Reversal 1. Requires counter-therapeutic change
2. Not appropriate for irreversible changes
3. SIB can be dangerous in this design
Reversal Design
A design in which an intervention is applied to behavior,
then removed and a second intervention is applied to the
same behavior (ex: NCR), and then the second
intervention is removed and the first is re-applied.
Steady state
When data show no trend according to some criterion
(e.g., no visible trend over 5 sessions)
Systematic Replication
Purposefully changing elements of the experiment and
repeating the new experiment. Displays external validity
or generality.
Threats to Internal Validity
Events that call into question whether the changes in
behavior resulted from the treatment. Include maturation
of the subject(s), inaccurate or biased recording, poor
implementation of the treatment, unplanned
environmental changes, etc.
Transition state
When there is a trend in the data, and there is
presumably an ongoing behavioral process that is
changing the strength of the behavior. Transition states
occur between steady states.
Withdrawal Design
Design in which baseline conditions are alternated with
intervention conditions. Minimum alternations are ABA or
Withdrawal with Probe Design
A standard ABAB design except the return to the A
condition is very brief.
Yoking: between subject
Between subject yoking: when some parameter in a
condition is used in another condition for a different
subject (e.g., one subject, called the master, is
responding under a FR 5 condition. When this subject
earns a reinforcer, another subject receives a reinforcer.
This would be used to generate a VT schedule for the
"slave." ).
Yoking: within subject
Within subject yoking: when some parameter in a
condition is used in another condition for a subject (e.g.,
the rate of reinforcement in a FR 5 condition is used to
program a FT schedule in another condition).
ABC recording
Recording antecedent, behavior, consequence streams.
Used in descriptive assessments.
Presumed to be present when there is agreement
between 2 trained observers. But more correctly, when
data are consistent "true values."
Behavior Definitions
Observable and measurable description of behavior
Bias of partial interval recording, whole
Partial interval: overestimates rates, used for reduction
interval recording and momentary time
Whole interval: underestimates rates, used for acquisition
Momentary time sampling: no systematic bias
A measure of the change in behavior over time (10/min,
20/min = doubling)
Continuous vs. Sampling Recording
Continuous - uninterrupted observation and recording
Sampling - behavior observed and recorded occasionally
Direct Observation
Observing behavior directly, instead of assessing through
Time between the beginning of a response and the end of
that response
Duration Recording
Using some timing device, recording the length of time of
the behavior/response
Event Recording
# of occurrences of a response are recorded.
Number of times a behavior occurs (Ex: count)
Force of behavior, which could be measured in decibels
(loudness) or lbs/sq in (pressure)
Inter-observer agreement (IOA)
Extent to which two observer's data agree. It is said to
estimate accuracy.
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): exact count 1. Divide observation time into intervals
per interval
2. Compute IOA for each interval by dividing small/large x
3. # of intervals = 100%/# intervals
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): mean count 1. Divide observation time into intervals
per interval
2. Compute IOA for each interval by dividing small/large x
3. Average all interval IOA
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): total count Smaller count/larger count X 100
Inter-observer agreement (IOA): Trial by trial # trials with agreement/# trials x 100
IRT - Interresponse Time
Time between end of a response and the beginning of
another response.
Duration of time between a stimulus and the beginning of
Momentary-Time Sampling
A recording procedure in which a time period is divided
into bins. A "+" is recorded if the behavior occurs at the
end of the bin. A "-" is recorded if behavior does not
occur at the end of the bin. There is no systematic bias.
Narrative recording
On-line description of behavior, antecedents and
consequences written in prose.
Observation Times for High Rate Behavior
Can be brief
Observation Times for Low Rate Behavior
Longer duration to catch the behavior
Observer drift
Tendency for an observer's recording to gradually change
across time. It can be pinpointed to the time when an
observer's scores differ from those of a 2nd observer.
One cause is a change in response definition.
Partial Interval Recording
Recording procedure in which a time period is divided
into bins. A "+" is recorded in each bin if a behavior
occurs at all during that bin. A "-" is recorded if the
behavior did not occur at all during that bin. This
recording procedure tends to be an overestimate.
Percentage Correct
# of correct responses/ # of total responses, multiplied by
Permanent Product Recording
Recording the effects of the behavior, not the behavior
itself (Ex: bed made)
6 Rate
6 Reactivity
6 Recalibration
6 Recording Procedures
6 Reliability
6 Training observers
6 Trials to Criterion
6 True Values
6 Whole Interval Recording
7 Bar Graphs (Histograms)
7 Characteristics of Graphed Data
7 Condition Change Line
7 Cumulative Record
7 Data
7 Data path
7 Graph
7 Horizontal Axis Label
7 Ignored Day
7 Level
7 No Chance Day
7 Split Middle Method
7 Standard Chart: Celeration
#of responses/ time (Ex: responses/minute)
Extent to which the act of recording influences behavior
(behavior changes when being observed)
Re-training an observer to increase accuracy, used to
decrease/correct observer drift
Methods for recording behavior that produce data
transposable into a measure
Extent to which a given measurement result will be
obtained with the same sample of behavior
Observers can be trained through explanation, video
tapes, modeling and feedback. They can be calibrated
using behaviors for which frequencies are known.
Number of trials required for a behavior to meet some
criterion (Ex: number of trials it takes to complete a task
without error)
Data in which extraordinary measures have been taken to
eliminate sources of error. True values hould
approximate the true measure of the behavior in the
A recording procedure in which a time period is divided
into bins. A "+" is recorded if the behavior occurred
during the entire bin. A "-" is recorded if the behavior did
not occur during the entire bin. This recording tends to
be an underestimate.
Graphs used to show the average # of behaviors or other
measures. Not appropriate for showing daily frequencies
in real time.
Level, Trend and Variability
Vertical line on graphs to indicate change. Solid line for
planned treatment/condition changes. Dashed line for
unplanned environment changes (Ex: changes in staff).
Graph that shows the cumulative number of responses
over time. Rate of response is represented by the slope
of the line.
The results of measurement usually in a quantifiable form
(e.g., # aggressions in a day, the rate of correct vs
incorrect flash cards).
The line connecting two successive data points.
Visual display of data, used for decision making and
comparisons of different treatments
Some unit of time (days, sessions, weeks, etc)
A day wherein the behavior did have a chance to occur
but no data were collected, thus, the previous data point
and the one following are connected
General height of the points, described by median/mean
of points
A day wherein the behavior could not occur, thus, the
previous data point and the one following are not
Method for drawing a trend line. The line is drawn so that
half of the data points fall above the line and half of the
data points fall below the line.
Rate of change, computed by drawing a best fit line and
dividing the rates on 2 consecutive Sundays.
7 Standard Chart: Dark Vertical Lines
7 Standard Chart: Duration Data Points Going
7 Standard Chart: Duration Data Points Going
7 Standard Chart: Left hand Y Axis
7 Standard Chart: Rate Data Points Going
7 Standard Chart: Rate Data Points Going Up
7 Standard Chart: Record Floor
Standard Chart: Right Hand Y Axis
Standard Chart: X Axis
7 Vertical Axis Label
8 Behavioral Goal
8 Behavioral Objective (five elements)
8 Choice Availability
8 Constructional Approach
8 Environmental Changes to Reduce the Need
for Tx
8 Fair Pair
8 Foundational Skills
8 Functional Goals
8 Intermediate outcomes
8 Program Design Relating to Implementers
8 Recommendations Regarding Interventions
Sunday lines
Duration is increasing
Duration is decreasing
Count per minute
Rate is decreasing
Rate is increasing
Dash on a particular day that shows the duration the
person was observed. Can be plotted by dividing 1/# min
or using the right hand scale.
Calendar Days
Direction of the data points, described by a "trend line"
Extent to which the data points vary from day to day,
often expressed as the range of data points. Range is
the highest value - lowest value.
The measure of behavior
Statement when behavioral program will be successful.
Includes specific behaviors but not specific criteria for
success. Should be age-appropriate.
Precise description of when a program will be successful:
Includes measure, criterion for success, antecedent,
behavior, and consequences (schedule of reinforcement)
when the program is completed.
Extent to which clients are given choices about their lives
and events therein. When choices are provided, fewer
problem behaviors may be exhibited.
Approach to decreasing inappropriate behavior by
focusing on building new behaviors to replace
inappropriate behaviors (replacement skills)
Making changes in the environment that will reduce the
need for a behavior program: find interesting job,
satisfying places to live/recreate, network of friends,
provide choices
1. ID the inappropriate behavior and program a procedure
to directly decrease it
2. ID a replacement behavior and teach it
These 2 elements constitute a "fair pair"
Skill that must be taught before other skills can be taught
Goals that will improve the life of the client and allow
more independence and choice. If not accomplished, a
caregiver will be required to perform the activity for the
Goals that lead to ultimate outcomes Ex: learning to
dress, ride the bus
Design the Tx while keeping in mind the contingencies
controlling the implementers behavior: will Tx be
monitored, will staff receive feedback, etc.
Consider: client preferences, task analysis info, client's
current repertoire, supports available in environment,
environmental constraints, social validity, assessments
8 Reinforcer Assessment Procedures
8 Task analysis
8 Ultimate outcomes
8 Weakening Behavior: Replacement skills
9 Adjusting Ratio
9 Alternative Schedule
9 Antecedent Manipulations (5)
9 Artificial v.s. Natural Contingencies
9 Backup Reinforcer
9 Backward Chaining
9 Behavioral Momentum: Applied
9 Behavioral Momentum: Laboratory
9 Behavioral Rehearsal
9 Chain Schedule
9 Chaining
9 Combined Prompts
9 Concept Formation
9 Concurrent Schedule (Conc)
and best practice
Test to see if the stimulus when presented contingent on
a behavior, will increase the rate of the behavior - can
use withdrawal design, reversal design, concurrent
Task in broken into smaller elements and elements are
stated in their correct order
Goals that relate to health, safety, choice, access to
positive reinforcers, avoiding aversive events and quality
of life.
Select a replacement skill that is easy to emit and has the
same function as the inappropriate behavior
Ratio schedule in which size of the ratio increases as
responding becomes more rapid and consistent, but
decreases when responding deteriorates.
A reinforcer is given when one of the two schedules is
completed. There is only one response option. Food is
given when Bill completes a FI1’ or FR 50, whichever
comes first.
1. Antecedent control procedure
2. Establishing Operation
3. Present SDs for appropriate behavior
4. Remove SDs for inappropriate behavior
5. Increase response effort for inappropriate behavior
Given a choice, a behavioral programmer should select
contingencies that approximate those in the natural
environment, rather than artificial contingencies. Where
artificial contingencies must be used, however, they
should be changed to more normal contingencies
whenever possible.
A reinforcer that is obtained by exchanging a token for it
in token systems
Teaching a sequence of responses by initially training the
last response of the chain, the second to last and the last,
etc. Reinforcer is delivered after the required number of
steps are completed.
Applied: Following low probability directions can be
increased when they are proceeded by several high
probability directions with reinforcers delivered after each.
Laboratory: subjects behavior patterns and
characteristics temporarily persist even when the
contingencies are changed.
Practicing a skill under stimulated conditions that
approximate those in the natural environment.
Two or more schedules are presented successively each
with its own signal. A reinforcer is given only at the end of
the sequence (FR10-FI1’-VR20-Reinforcer)
Systematically linking together individual skills into a
larger chain of skills.
Prompts are given at the same time or just after the SD
Generalization within a class of stimuli and discrimination
between classes. E.g.. Learning to identify all canines as
dogs and learning to discriminate between dogs and cats
Two or more schedules are available simultaneously that
9 Conditioned suppression: ABA
9 Conditioned suppression: EAB
9 Conjunctive Schedule (Conj)
9 Contingency Contract
9 Contingent Effort
9 Contingent Observation
9 Continuous Reinforcement
9 Delayed Imitation
9 Delayed Prompts
9 Dependent Group Contingency
9 Differential Reinforcement
9 Direct Instruction
can be selected (choose to work in workshop or watch
When the signal of an upcoming aversive event is on
(you are waiting in the Dr office), ongoing responding is
suppressed (it is hard to have an intelligent conversation
in the DR office).
Animal responds under VI schedule for food.
Periodically, a stimulus comes on and then is soon
followed by a shock. When the stimulus is on,
responding for food is suppressed.
A reinforcer is given when both of the two schedules are
completed. There is only one response option. Food is
given when Bill completes a FI 1’ and FR 50.
Agreement between client and programmer that states
specific behaviors by the client and what consequences
will be forthcoming for each behavior.
Any one of several procedures that involve requiring,
contingent on a response, client to engage in an effortful
Contingent on Behavior, the person is removed from
ongoing activities and permitted to observe same.
Refers to a FR1 schedule wherein every response
produces a reinforcer
When a person imitates a model, but the model is no
longer present.
Prompts are given after a period of time elapses after the
SD (gives the person a chance to perform independently)
Reinforcer for a group depends on the behavior of a
single person or small # of people
When a reinforcement contingency depends on 1.
presence or absence of a feature of a response, as in
response differentiation -or- 2. the presence or absence
of an antecedent stimulus, as in discrimination training
A method of teaching material such as reading and math
that involves scripted presentations, active student
participation, and immediate feedback from the teacher.
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior.
Reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a
fixed amount of time. The response is chosen because it
is an alternative to the target behavior but not necessarily
Differential Reinforcement of High Rates of Behaviors.
Reinforcer is delivered for more than a fixed number of
responses in a time period -or- Reinforcer is delivered
after an IRT less than some criterion amount of time.
Used to increase behavior.
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior.
Reinforcer is delivered when a response occurs for a
fixed amount of time. The response is chosen because it
is incompatible with the target behavior.
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior.
Reinforcer is delivered for no more than a fixed number of
responses in a time period -or- Reinforcer is delivered
after an IRT greater than some criterion amount of time.
Used to decrease behavior.
9 DRO: Momentary
9 Empirical Assessment of Reinforcers
9 Errorless Discrimination
9 Exclusion Timeout
9 Extinction-Induced Aggression
9 Extra-stimulus Prompts
9 Facial Screening
9 Fading
9 Feedback
9 FI- Fixed Interval
9 Forced Choice Preference Assessment
9 Forward Chaining
9 FR-Fixed Ratio
9 FT- Fixed Time
9 General case analysis
9 Generalized Imitation
9 Generalized Reinforcer
9 Graduated Guidance
9 Incidental learning
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. Reinforcer
is delivered when a response does not occur for a fixed
(or varied in VDRO) amount of time.
MDRO 5 min = observe person after 5 minutes, and if the
decel target behavior is not occurring at the moment, then
deliver some stimulus
Present the possible reinforcer contingent on a behavior
and see if the behavior is strengthened
Teaching Discrimination with few or no errors. Ex:
Fading in S-delta (incorrect stimulus) -or- superimposing
a new set of stimuli on an already learned discrimination
then fading out the already learned stimuli
Timeout from reinforcement in which the person is
removed from the immediate situation, but kept in the
general area.
Aggressive behavior that occurs when a behavior is being
Those prompts that are "outside" the SD, such as
physical guidance to prompt hand washing
Briefly covering the eyes or restricting visual input in
some way, contingent on a behavior
The gradual withdrawal of prompts, such that the SD
alone evokes the desired behavior
Providing information contingent on a behavior. Can
function as reinforcement or punishment, depending on
the nature of the information.
Reinforcer delivered after the first response after a fixed
amount of time has elapsed. Produces a scalloped rate
of responding
Present pairs of reinforcers and note which is selected.
Pair each reinforcer with all others on the list of possible
Teaching a sequence of responses by initially training the
first response of the chain, then the first and second, etc.
Reinforcer is presented after the required number of
steps are completed.
Reinforcer delivered after fixed number of responses.
Produces steady, high rate of response with pauses after
A reinforcer is delivered after a fixed time , irrespective of
When training for generalization, including all relevant
stimuli/responses that might be encountered. For
example, when training hand washing, all possible
sink/soap combinations might be trained to prepare the
Imitation skills that will occur even to untrained models.
Reinforcer that is effective in many situations because it
can be exchanged for a wide variety of backup
reinforcers. Ex: tokens, money
Give prompts were they are required, but immediately
fade when a person begins to perform the response
Learning that occurs in naturally occurring activities, not
as a result of programmed, artificial learning trials.
9 Independent Group Contingency
9 Instructions
9 Interdependent Group Contingency
9 Isolation Timeout
9 Kinds of Prompts
9 Learn unit
9 Least-to-Most Prompting
9 Limited Hold
9 Maintenance
9 Maintenance procedures
9 Matching equation
9 Matching equation: 2 ways to decrease R1
9 Mixed Schedule
9 Model
9 Model Characteristics
9 Modeling
9 Molar (level) Systems
9 Momentary DRO
Reinforcer is available for any person whose behavior
meets a criterion
Verbal descriptions of behavior and
Reinforcer is available if all people in the group meet a
minimum criterion -or- the group's overall performance
meets a criterion
A timeout from reinforcement in which the person is
placed in another location away from others
Physical guidance, gestural, written, verbal, imitation
A concept in instruction in which the teacher presents an
SD, there is active student responding, and the teacher
provides feedback to the student. Ideally, learn units
should occur frequently.
Give SD and then wait for response to be performed. If it
is not, give the least intrusive prompt first, then second
least intrusive, etc.
When reinforcer is available for the next response, that
response has a limited amount of time to occur or the
reinforcer is lost (FI 1’ LH10”)
Extent to which a procedure can produce durable
changes in behavior -or- a phase of acquisition that
uses specially designed procedures to maintain an
already-learned response
1. Thin schedules of reinforcement to increase RTE
2. Use natural reinforcers and stimuli
3. Train to fluency
Equation that expresses a fundamental functional
relation: the rate of response will be sensitive to the rate
of reinforcement for that response as well as the rate of
reinforcement for other responses
---------------------------R1 + R2
r1 + r2
1) decrease the rate of reinforcement for R1 and 2)
increase the rate of reinforcement for R2.
Two or more independent schedules that are presented
successively but each does not have its own signal.
Independent schedules are those that program their own
schedule of reinforcement. (Mix FR 10 FI 2')
Some antecedent stimulus that is topographically
identical to the behavior to be strengthened
Characteristics that might influence whether a model's
behavior will be imitated: model similarity, prestige of
model, emphasis on modeled behaviors, how nurturing
the model is, and instructions.
Providing a model for another person to imitate.
Level System wherein clients begin at bottom level and
then work their way up to higher levels. Each level has
its own behavioral criteria for entry and its own collection
of reinforcers.
DRO schedule in which reinforcer is delivered if the target
9 Most-to-Least Prompting
9 Multiple Schedule (Mult)
9 Negative Contrast
9 Negative Practice
9 Observation in preference assessment
9 Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)
9 Planned Ignoring
9 Polydipsia
9 Positive Contrast
9 Positive Practice Overcorrection
9 Post-Reinforcement Pause
9 Precision Teaching
9 Predictability
9 Preference assessment: Forced choice
9 Preference assessment: Multiple stimulus
9 Preference assessment: Single stimulus
behavior is not occurring at the moment the DRO interval
Present the prompt at maximum intensity, and gradually
use a less intense prompt over successive trials.
Two or more schedules that are presented successively
each with their own signal (1st period has FR10 attention
for tasks, 2nd period with different teacher has Ext for
task completion). (Mult FR 10 Ext)
Behavior in a changed situation increases, resulting in a
decrease of the behavior in an unchanged situation.
Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring
client to engage in that behavior repeatedly. Has been
used in smoking cessation.
Observe a person in free time and record what they do
Material is broken down into units and each unit has its
own study objectives. Students work at their own pace,
study the material and then take an exam. Students must
meet mastery criterion on an exam and may re-take
exams until criterion is met.
Behavior maintained by social reinforcers, and such
reinforcers are withheld for a given period of time
contingent on the behaviors.
Excessive drinking - generated by schedules of food
delivery. Rats under a FT 1 min schedule will drink up to
4-5 times their body weight in water. Also seen in FI
Behavior in a changed situation decreases, resulting in
an increase of the behavior in an unchanged situation.
Typically, the behavior in the changed situation is
decreased with extinction or punishment.
Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring
person to practice the appropriate behavior that should
have occurred. Ex: if a child wets his pants, he will then
practice standing up and walking to the bathroom.
A brief pause of responding immediately after
reinforcement under fixed-ratio or variable ratio
schedules. Is sometimes called the pre-ratio pause, as
the pause duration is determined by the size of the
upcoming ratio.
Using behavioral teaching methods and the standard
Used in behavior programs to decrease problem
behavior. This can involve written or picture schedules of
upcoming events.
Present person with pairs of reinforcers, and note which
one is selected. Pair each reinforcer with all of the others
on the list of possible reinforcers. Graph the # times each
item is selected.
Multiple stimulus with (or without) replacement – present
an array and record how often an item is selected. The
without replacement can be used to rank order
Present a single stimulus, and see if person contacts it.
Or, record the latency or duration of contact.
9 Preference Assessment: Types
9 Premack Principle
9 Probe Trials
9 Procedural integrity DV
9 Progressive Ratio
9 Progressive ratio break point
9 Progressive Relaxation
9 Prompts
9 Public Commitment
9 Punishment Guidelines for Efficacy (7
9 Punishment Side Effects (x5)
9 Rank Order Preferences
9 Ratio Strain
9 Reducing a response using matching law
9 Reflexivity
9 Rehearsal
1. Interviews
2. Free operant - see what person contacts in free time
2. Single stimulus
3. Forced choice
4. Arrays with/without replacement
Procedure in which high probability behavior can be used
to reinforce low probability behavior and low probability
behavior can be used to punish high probability behavior
A method of measuring generalization in which the
behavior is measured in untrained situations.
The typical DV is % of competencies correctly displayed.
Ratio Schedule in which the ratio size gradually increases
over time. This schedule is sometimes used to assess
reinforcer effectiveness. To do so, the "break point" is
identified - when the organism stops responding.
In a PR schedule, the break point is the last ratio size
completed before the organism stops responding. In
reinforcer assessments, the higher the break point, the
more effective is the reinforcer.
Technique of relaxation wherein the person relaxes
various muscle groups. When completed, the person is
able to totally relax all major muscle groups under the
control of a cue.
An extra antecedent stimulus that is used to evoke a
behavior such that it can then be reinforced
Person designing his/her own self-control program
enlisting the contingency management support of friends
or family.
a. Immediate after the target behavior
b. Consistent- punish every response (FR1)
c. Provide alternative behavior that obtains same
d. Do not allow reinforcer to follow to closely after
e. Use High Intensity Punisher
f. Withhold all reinforcers that can be produced by the
target behavior
g. Punisher should be linked to assessment data.
a. Escape from the punishing agent
b. Aggression towards punishing agent
c. Emotional behavior
d. Modeling by observers
e. Inappropriate generalization – person afraid to do
Analyze choices to determine the most and least
preferred items. Formula is # times an item is selected
divided by total number of pairs in which the item
appeared then multiply the total by 100.
A decrease in responding under a ratio schedule because
ratio size is too large or was increased to rapidly
1. Decrease rate of reinforcement for the response
2. Increase rate of reinforcement for other responses
If A=A, then A=A
Practicing a behavior to be learned
9 Reinforcer Menu
A visual display of several reinforcers from which the
person may choose
Reinforcer Sampling
Requiring a person to sample various reinforcers, such
that he/she has sufficient experience with them to choose
the preferred reinforcer
Reinforcer Survey
Ask people about their preferences. Now more correctly
referred as a preference assessment.
Relation between reinforcer effectiveness and Reinforcer effectiveness increases with shorter delay,
delay, amount, quality, deprivation, and
larger amounts, higher quality, greater deprivation, and
greater variety.
Required Relaxation
Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring
person to lie down and relax in quiet area for a period of
Resistance to extinction: schedule effects
Extinction after dense schedules (FR 1): rapid.
Extinction after lean schedules (VR 100): slow
Response Cost
Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, the removal
of a reinforcing object (radio, token, magazine).
Response Deprivation Procedures
Procedure that involves depriving an organism of the
opportunity to emit a response and then using the
opportunity to emit the response as a potential reinforcer
for other behavior.
Response Differentiation
A use of differential reinforcement to change a
characteristic of behavior. For example, a father may
only listen to his son when the son talks about sports. As
a result, the son frequently talks sports.
Response Generalization
Effects of some contingency spread to responses not yet
associated with the contingency.
Restitutional Overcorrection
Contingent on some inappropriate behavior, requiring the
person to restore the environment to a condition superior
to that before the behavior occurred.
Rules for Designing a Token System
-base it on functional assessments
-ID tokens that are easily used
-ID target behaviors and rules for obtaining tokens
-ID schedule of token exchange
-ID how tokens will be conditioned as reinforcers
-field test the system and fine tune as needed
Schedule Induced (adjunctive) Behavior.
Behavior that seems to appear because it is under a
schedule of reinforcement. E.g. Some organisms will
exhibit aggression under FR 50 schedules of food
delivery, rats will exhibit copious drinking when exposed
to FI 1 schedules of food delivery.
Schedule of reinforcement
A rule that specifies when a reinforcer will be delivered.
Schedule Thinning
Gradually decreasing the rate of reinforcement. In a FR
schedule, the FR size increases. In a FI schedule, the
time requirement increases.
Self Control
Involves procedures that are implemented by the client.
Typically requires some external source of contingency
Self Management
Another term for self control. The person actively
participates in the recording, goal setting, or
reinforcement procedures.
Client decides if their behavior meets criteria for
punishment and delivers the punisher (or arranges for its
delivery) if it does.
9 Self-Recording
9 Self-reinforcement
9 Shadowing
9 Shaping
9 Side Effects of Negative Reinforcement
9 Side Effects of Positive Reinforcement
9 Simple Schedules of Reinforcement
9 Social Validity
9 Spatial Fading
9 Stimulus Equivalence
9 Stimulus Generalization
9 Stimulus Over-Selectivity
9 Stimulus Shaping
9 Superstitious Behavior
9 Symmetry
9 Tandem Schedule
9 Target Setting
9 Task interspersal
9 Task Variation
Client decides if and when their own behavior meets a
criterion, and then recording the behavior if it does.
Clients decides if behavior meets criteria for
reinforcement and delivers the reinforcer (or arranges for
its delivery) if it does.
When the trainer moves his/ her hands along with the
client's hands as he performs the skill.
Gradually changing the form or topography of a behavior
by reinforcing successive approximations to the correct
Similar to punishment side effects: escape from aversive
stimuli, aggression, emotional behavior, etc.
Schedule-induced aggression, frequent requests for
reinforcer (nagging), "shadowing" the source of
reinforcement, attempts to escape schedule when the
requirements are high (e.g., high FR schedules).
Single schedules such as FR, VR, FI, VI, FT, VT
Whether goals, procedures, and outcomes are
acceptable. This can be determined by asking
community members, experts, competent individuals,
family or the client.
Gradually changing the spatial locus of a prompt during
fading. E.g. going from hand, to wrist, to forearm, etc.
When a class of stimuli evoke the same responses or
more generally have the same effects on behavior.
Stimuli that evoke the response "dog" include 1. word dog
2. picture of dog 3. sight of dog 4. sound of dog barking
Effects of some contingency spread to stimuli that have
not been associated with the contingency.
The tendency of lower functioning individuals to attend to
one and only one element of a complex SD. With a red A
and blue B, the individual may only attend to the colors
and fail to attend to the letters.
Involves transfer of stimulus control from an already
effective stimulus to a new stimulus. E.g. using two
apples to teach number 2 and then fading them into the
number 2.
Behavior that occurs as a result of "accidental" or
adventitious reinforcement. In this kind of reinforcement,
the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but
nontheless occurs after it.
If A=B, then B=A
Two or more schedules that are presented successively,
but there is no signal for each. A reinforcer is given only
at the end of the sequence
Setting to which a client will be placed after behavioral
programming has finished. Setting to which
generalization efforts are directed
In instruction, difficult tasks should be presented and
interspersed with easier tasks (such as maintenance
The extent to which tasks are varied in a block of time.
There is some research that suggests rapidly varying the
tasks may engender improved learning.
9 Teaching VB using transfer of stimulus control 1. Teach echoics or textuals
2. Use echoics or textuals as prompts when teaching
mands, tacks, intraverbals
3. Fade use of echoics or textuals as prompts
9 Timeout
Time out from reinforcement – signaling the removal of
opportunity to earn reinforcement for a period of time,
contingent on inappropriate behavior.
9 Tokens
Generalized conditioned reinforcers that when earned
can be exchanged for other reinforcers, or backup
reinforcers. Benefits: quickly & easily delivered,
exchanged for a variety of backup reinforcers.
9 Total Task Training
When an entire task is trained at once, instead of
implementing a chaining procedure. Usually includes
graduated guidance
9 Train Loosely for Generalization
During training, vary the environment such that there is
not narrow stimulus control over the skill. This procedure
tends to flatten the generalization gradient.
9 Transfer of Stimulus Control
When one stimulus can evoke a response, and then that
capacity is transferred to a second stimulus
9 Transitivity
If A=B and B=C, then A=C
9 VI-Variable Interval
Reinforcement delivered after the first response after an
average amount of time has elapsed. Produces a steady,
medium rate of response with little pausing.
9 VR-Variable Ratio
Reinforcement delivered after average number of
responses. Produces a steady, very high rate of
response with brief, if any, pauses after reinforcement
9 VT- Variable Time
A reinforcer is delivered after a variable amount of time
(average) irrespective of behavior.
9 Ways to Encourage Maintenance (6 ways)
-train to fluency
-use naturally occurring stimuli
-fade out artificial stimuli
-use delayed consequences
-use self-control repertoires
-use intermittent schedules of reinforcement
9 Ways to Program Generalization (8 ways)
-Instructions – train a response and give instruction to
encourage generalization
-Train in many stimulus conditions.
-Design supportive environment-untrained situations.
-Train loosely
-Program common stimuli
-Delayed/intermittent reinforcement
-Self Management
-Use a variety of prosthetic devices
9 Within-stimulus Prompts
Those prompts that are contained within the SD, such as
isolating and exaggerating the critical difference between
an "E" and "F"
10 Competency based training
The kind of training that is essential in staff training and
management. This training involves a needs
assessment, learning objectives, performance criteria,
training procedures (instruction, simulations, in vivo
training), and on-line feedback. Training systems
observe the principles of behavior that are found in CBA
10 Counter control
Attempts by the subjects of behavior programming to
change the behavior of the programmer. For example,
10 Information sharing and display
10 Obtain Support from Others
10 Outcomes management
10 Performance Monitoring Systems
10 Procedural Integrity
10 Staff training: best practice
10 Support for behavior analysis services
students learned to train their teachers to deliver more
praise and positive comments.
Information about behavior analysis services should be
provided to those directly involved (clients, trainers,
parents), and to those who have a legitimate interest
(educational/governmental officials, administrators).
When sharing data with non-professionals, the display
should be easily interpreted (avoid 6 cycle graphs consider bar graphs).
To maintain a client's behavior, you should secure
support from those in their natural environment and work
in collaboration with others who are involved with the
When feedback is given to participants and the feedback
depends on an outcome (some permanent product such
as $ made, skills taught, etc).
Systems designed to encourage and maintain
appropriate staff behavior. They involve objectively
defined job descriptions, sufficient training in the job, online frequent feedback, and a system of incentives for
excellent performance
Collecting data on the extent to which the program is
being implemented correctly. Contingencies are used to
maintain and shape behavior of implementers.
Explanation, demonstration, and feedback on their
implementation. It is particularly important to have them
practice the skills and receive feedback.
A behavior analyst should enlist support for her/his
technology from those who are directly affected by the
services and by those only indirectly affected, but who
may have decision power over them (administrators,
educational/government officials, advocacy committee,
HRS, popular media). Such support can be obtained by
educational programs, and feedback/outcome measures
that show cost effectiveness of the technology.
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