Take Home Test #11… - Yorktown High School

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Name________________________________________________________________Period________
Mrs. Laux
Take Home Test #11 on Chaps. 14, 15, & 17
AP Biology
DUE: MONDAY, JANUARY 9, 2012
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Regulation of gene expression can be accomplished by controlling:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the activity of a protein product.
the amount of mRNA that is available.
the rate of translation of mRNA.
the rate of mRNA degradation.
All of these.
2. The focus of gene regulation in multicellular organisms is on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
operons.
the specificity of products in different tissues.
economizing resources at all levels.
rapid turnover of RNA molecules.
All of these.
3. Bacteria rarely regulate gene products through:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
promoter sequences.
activator proteins.
repressor proteins.
protein degradation.
operons.
4. Genes that encode proteins that are always needed are called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
repressible genes.
promoter genes.
constitutive genes.
inducible genes.
operons.
5. The researchers who first discovered the mechanism of control of a bacterial gene were:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Hershey and Chase.
Griffith and Avery.
Watson and Crick.
Jacob and Monod.
McClintock and Morgan.
6. The operator of the lactose operon in E. coli is located:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
between the promoter and the TATA box.
upstream of the promoter.
between the promoter and the structural genes.
among the structural genes.
anywhere on the chromosome.
7. How does the lactose repressor block transcription of the lactose operon?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
by
by
by
by
by
“turning off” the appropriate genes in the intron
regulating the activity of the enzymes that the operon codes for
binding allosterically to the appropriate genes
slowing the uptake of lactose into the cell
binding to the operator
14 - 1
Name________________________________________________________________Period________
Mrs. Laux
Take Home Test #11 on Chaps. 14, 15, & 17
AP Biology
DUE: MONDAY, JANUARY 9, 2012
8. The gene that codes for the repressor protein of the E. coli lactose operon is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
located between the operator and the promoter.
downstream from the promoter region.
downstream from the operator.
constitutive.
turned off most of the time.
9. The molecular switch that controls gene expression is known as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the operon.
controller.
the operator.
repressor.
inducer.
10. Lactose induces the transcription of the lactose operon by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
binding to the allosteric site of the repressor after being converted to allolactose.
stimulating lactose metabolism in the cell.
binding to the glucose operon, making it inoperable.
binding to the allosteric site of RNA polymerase.
inhibiting the activity of CAP.
11. The inducer of the lactose operon in E. coli is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
CAP.
AMP.
allolactose.
glucose.
galactose.
12. Inducible genes are usually actively transcribed when:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the molecule degraded by the enzyme(s) is present in the cell.
repressor molecules bind to the promoter.
lactose is absent from the cell.
quantities of precursor materials are low.
there is no other substrate that can be used by the cell.
13. Repressible genes are usually actively transcribed when:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
repressor molecules bind to the promoter.
the supply of the end product formed by the enzymes encoded by these genes is
low.
tryptophan accumulates in the cell.
quantities of precursor materials are high.
there is no other substrate that can be used by the cell.
14. An inducible operon is usually controlled by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
an inducer molecule that keeps it in the “off” state.
an active repressor that keeps it in the “off” state.
being active at all times.
allolactose.
being turned “off,” usually by the end product of the pathway.
14 - 2
Name________________________________________________________________Period________
Mrs. Laux
Take Home Test #11 on Chaps. 14, 15, & 17
AP Biology
DUE: MONDAY, JANUARY 9, 2012
15. Bacterial enzymes that are part of a rarely used catabolic pathway are usually
organized into a(n) ________________.
A.
B.
inducible operon
repressible operon
16. A repressible operon is usually controlled by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
an inactive repressor that allows it to be in the “on” state.
the supply of the precursor product for the enzymes.
an inactive repressor that keeps it in the “off” state.
tryptophan.
being turned “on,” usually by the end product of the pathway.
17. In the tryptophan operon, the repressor actively binds to the operator when:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
tryptophan binds to an allosteric site on the repressor.
tryptophan levels are low.
lactose levels are low.
there is a great need for proteins.
allotryptophan levels are low.
18. An activator protein would have which of the following effects on an operon with a
positive control mechanism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
stimulate transcription
turn off transcription
stimulate transcription when a coactivator is bound to the allosteric site
inhibit transcription when a coactivator is bound to the allosteric site
no response
19. Translational controls regulate:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the
the
the
the
the
activity of a protein end-product that is produced.
rate at which an mRNA molecule is translated.
rate at which an mRNA molecule is synthesized.
uptake of nucleic acids into the cell.
attachment of phosphate groups to polypeptides.
20. A repressor protein would have which of the following effects on repressible genes with
a negative control mechanism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
stimulate transcription in the presence of a corepressor
turn off transcription in the presence of an inducer
stimulate transcription in the presence of a coactivator
turn off transcription in the presence of a corepressor
no response
21. A new operon is discovered in a bacterium. The control of this operon is affected by a
protein that is made by another gene, and is made in an active form that binds to the
DNA near the operon to prevent transcription. This is an example of ________________
control.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
positive
negative
activational
repressing
inducing
14 - 3
Name________________________________________________________________Period________
Mrs. Laux
Take Home Test #11 on Chaps. 14, 15, & 17
AP Biology
DUE: MONDAY, JANUARY 9, 2012
22. Bacterial gene regulation occurs mainly at the _________________ level.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23–25.
translational
transcriptional
posttranscriptional
feedback inhibition
posttranslational
Use the figure to answer the corresponding questions.
23. The area of the tryptophan operon labeled 3 is the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
promoter.
repressor gene.
ribosome.
RNA polymerase.
None of these.
24. The structure labeled 7 in the figure of the tryptophan operon is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
an active repressor protein.
an inactive repressor protein.
an active RNA polymerase.
an inactive RNA polymerase.
A ribosome.
25. The promoter in the figure is labeled ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6
3
1
2
7
14 - 4
Name________________________________________________________________Period________
Mrs. Laux
Take Home Test #11 on Chaps. 14, 15, & 17
AP Biology
DUE: MONDAY, JANUARY 9, 2012
26. Feedback inhibition is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
transcriptional control.
transcriptional control.
a mechanism affecting events after translation.
a repressible system.
None of these.
27. Feedback inhibition of the first enzyme of a pathway by the end product of the pathway
is an example of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
translational control.
posttranslational control.
transcriptional control.
inhibiting control.
repression.
28. Densely staining regions of highly compacted chromatin that are generally not
transcribed are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
heterochromatin.
homochromatin.
histone-dependent chromatin.
primary chromatin.
None of these.
29. Genes in euchromatic regions are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
inhibited.
duplicated
actively being transcribed.
repressed.
unregulated.
30. In female mammals, most of the inactive X chromosome has become:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
associated with histones.
active X factor.
euchromatin.
replicated.
heterochromatin.
31. DNA sequences that are methylated by a cell are usually genes that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
have been replicated
are actively expressed.
are inactive.
are constitutive.
are repressed.
32. The rate of eukaryotic transcription after initiation is affected by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
upstream promoter elements.
groups of genes arranged into operons.
the action of catabolite activator proteins.
how fast caps and tails can be added to pre-mRNA.
enhancers.
14 - 5
Name________________________________________________________________Period________
Mrs. Laux
Take Home Test #11 on Chaps. 14, 15, & 17
AP Biology
DUE: MONDAY, JANUARY 9, 2012
33. A TATA box is seen in ______________ cells and is the site where _______________________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
bacterial; RNA polymerase binds
eukaryotic; DNA ligase cleaves introns
eukaryotic; RNA polymerase binds
both bacterial and eukaryotic; transcription factors bind
bacterial; a repressor protein binds
34. Upstream promoter elements in eukaryotes are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
nucleotide sequences that act as binding sites for RNA polymerase.
nucleotide sequences that regulate the efficiency of transcription initiation.
nucleotide sequences that contain the TATA box.
proteins that enhance RNA polymerase binding to the promoter.
proteins that inhibit RNA polymerase binding to the promoter.
35. Eukaryotic enhancers are capable of which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
regulating a gene even if they are cut out of the DNA and reinserted inverted
regulating a gene from very long distances
interacting with proteins that regulate transcription
increasing the rate of RNA synthesis after initiation
All of these
36. DNA sequences called ____________ increase the rate of RNA synthesis after initiation of
transcription.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
promoters
TATA boxes
UPEs
enhancers
regulators
37. Eukaryotic transcription factors:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
are always simpler than bacterial regulators.
may be activators or repressors of transcription.
are inducers.
are corepressors.
are also known as enhancers.
38. Gene amplification involves:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
increasing the affinity of a gene to DNA polymerase.
extra replication of genes that specify a certain gene product only in cells needing
this product.
improving the accuracy by which a gene is copied to produce an mRNA molecule.
enhancing the activity of RNA polymerase.
increasing the size of the gene that encodes a needed protein.
39. A cell may meet the need for large quantities of a specific protein by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
continuously synthesizing the mRNA molecule that specifies that protein.
increasing the half-life of the mRNA that specifies the protein.
having multiple copies of the gene that codes for that protein.
All of these.
None of these.
14 - 6
Name________________________________________________________________Period________
Mrs. Laux
Take Home Test #11 on Chaps. 14, 15, & 17
AP Biology
DUE: MONDAY, JANUARY 9, 2012
40, 41.
Use the figure to answer the corresponding questions.
40. The type of expression illustrated in the
accompanying figure is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
a typical bacterial gene.
a weakly expressed bacterial gene.
a strongly expressed eukaryotic
gene.
a weakly expressed eukaryotic
gene.
a gene stimulated by an enhancer.
41. The structure labeled 2 in the associated figure is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the
the
the
the
the
enhancer.
TATA box.
Pribnow box.
transcription initiation site.
transcription termination site.
42. Which of the following types of processing does eukaryotic mRNA undergo before it
becomes functional?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
splicing
capping
polyadenylation
removal of introns
All of these.
43. In eukaryotes, some DNA sequences act as introns in some cells and as exons in other
cells. This is an example of ______________________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
gene repression
mRNA splicing
gene amplification
differential mRNA processing
gene processing
44. Increasing the stability of a particular mRNA _________________ the expression of that
gene.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
increases
does not affect
eliminates
decreases
None of these.
45. Enzymes that alter another protein or enzyme’s activity by attaching a phosphate group
are called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
kinases.
phosphatases.
phospators.
transcription factors.
coenzymes.
14 - 7
Chapter 15: DNA Technology and Genomics
46. Splicing together DNA from 2 different organisms is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
bioengineering.
in vitro gene technology.
biotechnology.
recombinant DNA technology.
genetic engineering.
47. The modification of the DNA of an organism to produce new genes with new traits is
most properly called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
bioengineering.
in vitro gene technology.
biotechnology.
recombinant DNA technology.
genetic engineering.
48. The use of organisms to develop useful products is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
bioengineering.
in vitro gene technology.
biotechnology.
recombinant DNA technology.
genetic engineering.
49. Bacteriophages are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
viruses that infect bacteria.
plasmids that infect bacteria.
bacteria that infect other bacteria.
enzymes that destroy bacteria.
None of the above.
50. A ____________ is required to transfer genes from one organism to another.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
vector
reverse transcriptase
transport molecule
genetic probe
PCR device
51. A large number of copies of any DNA segment can be obtained by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
introducing foreign DNA into a microorganism so that it can be replicated.
stimulating increased transcription of the appropriate sequence of mRNA.
stimulating increased translation of the appropriate DNA molecule.
inducing the production of DNA from proteins.
stimulating reverse transcription of tRNA.
52. What purpose do restriction enzymes play in bacterial cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Restriction
Restriction
Restriction
Restriction
Restriction
enzymes
enzymes
enzymes
enzymes
enzymes
prevent the overproduction of mRNA in the bacterial cell.
attack bacteriophage DNA when it enters the cell.
promote bonding of the RNA polymerase to the promoter.
limit the rate of bacterial replication.
connect Okazaki fragments.
15 - 8
Chapter 15: DNA Technology and Genomics
53. Transformation is a process whereby:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
bacteria are transferred into plasmid cells.
viruses are transferred into bacterial cells.
plasmids are transferred into bacterial cells.
bacteria are transferred into viral cells.
plasmids are transferred into viral cells.
54. Bacteria methylate their DNA in order to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
prepare for DNA replication.
prepare for mitosis.
effectively infect other cells.
protect it from restriction enzymes.
prevent viral DNA from hybridizing with bacterial DNA.
55. Which DNA sequence below would be a palindromic sequence?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
AGCGCT
AGCAGC
AAAGGG
ACACAC
AGTCGT
56. “Sticky ends” are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the single-stranded ends of a DNA segment created by some restriction enzymes.
a problem in recombinant DNA technology because they form loops of singlestranded DNA.
double-stranded ends of a DNA segment created by some restriction enzymes.
sites of the origin of replication in prokaryotes.
sugar molecules that are bound to the ends of a DNA fragment.
57. DNA ligase links two ____________ DNA fragments by ____________ bonds.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
complementary; hydrogen
circular; covalent
palindromic; covalent
linear; covalent
linear; hydrogen
58. The total DNA in a cell is referred to as the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
genome.
cDNA.
library.
chromosomal DNA.
None of these.
59. A genomic library is a collection of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
plasmid fragments that are spliced into DNA.
DNA fragments that are spliced into plasmids.
intron fragments that are spliced into plasmids.
exon fragments that are spliced into bacterial cells.
gene fragments that are spliced into main bacterial chromosome.
15 - 9
Chapter 15: DNA Technology and Genomics
60. A genomic library consists of fragments of all of the DNA:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
that occurs in one species.
contained in one chromosome.
that would be found in a typical cell of a particular organism.
in a recombinant gene.
that codes for functional enzymes in a typical cell of a particular organism.
61. In producing a genomic library, human DNA and plasmid DNA must first be treated
with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the same restriction enzyme.
different restriction enzymes.
the same DNA ligase.
different DNA ligases.
None of these.
62. During the preparation of a human genomic library, plasmids containing human DNA
fragments are inserted into:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
compatible human cells.
an antibiotic-resistant strain of E. coli to protect the inserted fragments.
antibiotic-sensitive E. coli cells that become antibiotic-resistant if transformed.
bacteriophages.
mRNA molecules.
63. The amplification of recombinant plasmids occurs by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the growth of the plasmid DNA.
DNA replication of plasmids outside a host cell.
the process of growth and division of the host cell.
transformation of bacterial cells.
the polymerase chain reaction.
15 - 10
Chapter 15: DNA Technology and Genomics
64, 65.
Use the figure to answer the corresponding questions.
64. What process or enzyme was used for Step 1 in the accompanying figure?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
PCR
a bacteriophage
a reverse transcriptase
a DNA ligase
a restriction enzyme
65. The use of antibiotic medium at the end of this process:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
selects against plasmids containing human DNA fragments.
selects for plasmids containing particular DNA fragments.
selects for bacteria containing plasmids.
selects for bacteria lacking plasmids.
prevents contamination of the medium.
66. To avoid the introduction of introns into the vector, a ________ copy of mature mRNA is
made, using the enzyme _____________________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
sDNA;
cDNA;
cDNA;
sDNA;
cDNA;
RNA polymerase
DNA ligase
reverse transcriptase
reverse transcriptase
DNA polymerase
15 - 11
Chapter 15: DNA Technology and Genomics
67. Which of the following statements regarding cDNA libraries is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
They are usually double stranded DNA.
They are composed of DNA synthesized with the use of reverse transcriptase.
They are composed of DNA synthesized from an mRNA template.
They contain introns and exons.
They contain DNA that is complementary to the mRNA from which it was
synthesized.
68. How is reverse transcriptase used to clone genes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Reverse transcriptase
Reverse transcriptase
molecule.
Reverse transcriptase
molecule.
Reverse transcriptase
Reverse transcriptase
is used to make a cDNA copy of an mRNA strand.
is used to make a cloned DNA copy of a plasmid DNA
is necessary to read the information contained on the cDNA
transcribes RNA from cDNA in reverse order.
transcribes cDNA into RNA without transcription of introns.
69. In polymerase chain reaction technology, the two strands of DNA are separated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70–72.
gel electrophoresis.
treating them with restriction enzymes.
centrifugation.
exposing them to high pH.
heating them.
Use the figure to answer the corresponding questions.
70. The darker sections of the original
molecule, labeled as 1, represent:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
exons.
introns.
mRNA.
cDNA.
DNA polymerase.
71. The process occurring at the step labeled 7
is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
PCR.
transcription.
reverse transcription.
RNA processing.
None of these.
15 - 12
Chapter 15: DNA Technology and Genomics
72. The most significant difference between the original DNA molecule and the final
product, labeled 12, is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
that the final product is much longer.
the lack of exons.
the lack of introns.
the gene sequences that code for protein have been altered.
None of these.
73. ____________ is a technique that can be used to separate DNA molecules on the basis of
their size.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Separation gradient
Electrophoresis
Selective sorting
Cloning
PCR
74. PCR:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
can only be carried out if DNA polymerase is heat resistant.
is used to amplify tiny quantities of DNA in vitro.
replicates specific DNA sequences.
has applications for archaeology and crime scene analysis.
All of these.
75. Southern blotting is a process where ____________ is transferred from a gel to a
__________________ where a probe can be applied.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
DNA; water solution
protein; water solution
DNA; nitrocellulose filter
RNA; nitrocellulose filter
protein; nitrocellulose filter
76. The presence of detectable variation in the genomes of different individuals of a
population is termed:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
DNA sequencing.
DNA electrophoresis.
DNA tandem repeats.
polymorphism.
DNA profiling.
77. If a protein-coding gene is identified, its function can be studied by using RNA
interference to ______________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
produce a RFLP
produce an EST
turn the gene on
turn the gene off
induce a mutation
78. Proteomics is made complicated by the fact that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
gene therapy is in its infancy.
DNA sequencing requires powerful computers.
the response to a drug varies with the individual.
certain genes encode several different proteins.
All of these.
15 - 13
Chapter 15: DNA Technology and Genomics
79. Why is insulin produced by genetically engineered E. coli cells superior to insulin
obtained from animal sources?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Animal insulin has a shorter life span than insulin produced using recombinant
DNA techniques.
It contains human rather than animal sequences, reducing the chances of an
allergic response.
Animal insulin is more difficult to purify than is recombinantly produced insulin.
Recombinantly produced insulin has a much higher activity level.
Recombinantly produced insulin is easier to obtain than insulin from animals.
80. Why is human blood clotting factor VIII produced by genetically engineered bacteria
better to treat hemophilia type A than the clotting factor isolated from human or animal
blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81, 82.
Recombinantly produced clotting factor has a longer shelf life than natural
clotting factor.
Clotting factor isolated from blood can transmit infectious agents.
Clotting factor isolated from human blood can cause transfusion reactions.
Recombinantly produced clotting factor is free of blood thinning factors.
Natural clotting factor from blood is not very active.
Use the figure to answer the corresponding questions.
81. The columns in the accompanying figure
represent F (for female), C (for children),
and M (for male). The presence of the
band marked with arrow #1 shows that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
this DNA sequence was inherited
both children from their father.
this DNA sequence was inherited
both children from their mother.
this DNA sequence was inherited
only one child from the father.
this DNA sequence was inherited
only one child from the mother.
individual M is not the father of
these children.
by
by
by
by
82. The columns in the accompanying figure represent F (for female), C (for children), and
M (for male). The presence of the band marked with arrow #2, shows that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
this DNA sequence in the children is a mutation.
this DNA sequence in the children is inherited from their mother.
this DNA sequence in the children is inherited from their father.
this sequence in the children is inherited from both their mother and father.
individual F is not the mother of these children.
15 - 14
Chapter 17: Developmental Genetics
83. Retroviruses make _________ by the process of ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
RNA copies of DNA; reverse transcription
DNA copies of RNA; reverse transcription
genetic probes; Southern blotting
genetic probes; Northern blotting
telomerase; mutagenesis
84. An organism in which foreign genes have been incorporated is called a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
recombinant organism.
transgene.
polymorphism
transgenic organism.
recombinant.
85. In the field of plant transgenics, the use of the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens
has proven useful because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
it is not attacked by plant immune systems.
it has been genetically engineered to penetrate the plant cell wall.
it can directly modify the plant genome, causing it to make useful products for
humans.
it is found naturally in almost all species of plants.
it is able to transfer a plasmid into host plant cells.
86. Why is it unlikely that genetically engineered strains of bacteria would pose a threat to
the environment?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Genetically engineered
Genetically engineered
release unlikely.
Genetically engineered
Genetically engineered
Genetically engineered
survive.
bacteria cannot survive exposure to UV radiation.
strains of bacteria are strictly regulated, making accidental
strains of bacteria cannot survive exposure to oxygen.
strains of bacteria are poor competitors of wild strains.
strains of bacteria require supplemental nutrients to
87. Cells become progressively committed to specific patterns of gene activity and
developmental fate through a process known as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
morphogenesis.
determination.
cell differentiation.
nonspecific differentiation.
growth.
88. Cells becoming progressively more specialized in their structure and gene activity is
known as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
morphogenesis.
determination.
differentiation.
maturation.
growth.
17 - 15
Chapter 17: Developmental Genetics
89. Cells become progressively organized into recognizable structures through a process
known as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
morphogenesis.
determination.
cell differentiation.
nonspecific differentiation.
growth.
90. The concept of nuclear equivalence states that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
all of the somatic cells in an adult organism have the same genes.
the genes of the individuals of the same species are exactly the same.
as cells mature, unneeded genes are lost.
the nuclei of all organisms are the same.
nuclei of individuals of the same species are the same size.
91. Differential gene expression is defined as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the ability of some cells to arrest their development under different environmental
conditions.
the progressive fixation of the fates of a cell’s descendants.
the differences in the types of genes found in various somatic cells.
regulation during development that varies the type and quantity of gene products
among cells.
the ability of some cells to constitutively express all their genes all the time.
92. The significance of totipotency is that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
genes are not regularly lost during development.
most organisms can be easily cloned.
differentiation leads to the loss of certain genes in each cell.
somatic cells are incapable of differentiation.
unexpressed genes are lost during development.
93. One of the main obstacles to successful cloning of sheep apparently overcome by
Wilmut et al. was:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94, 95.
finding an adult nucleus that was likely to work.
synchronizing the cell cycles of the donor cell and the egg cell.
enucleating the donor cell.
the ability to culture cells in the laboratory.
recognizing that the nucleus from one sheep cell may contain different genetic
information than the nucleus of another cell from the same animal.
Use this figure to answer the corresponding questions.
94. In the accompanying figure, the purpose of growing the donor cells in nutrient-limited
media is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
to
to
to
to
to
have small cells that would be easier to manipulate.
replicate a normal environment.
force the donor cell nucleus into the G0 cell stage.
induce favorable mutations.
initiate apoptosis.
17 - 16
Chapter 17: Developmental Genetics
95. In the figure, the purpose of electrical shock at the stage of the process labeled A is to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
kill the egg cell nucleus.
initiate fusion of the two cells.
stimulate cell division.
induce mutations.
None of these.
96. Cloning mammals has proven to be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
impossible.
easy and straightforward.
not technically feasible at the present time.
a technique that produces many similar-looking, deformed progeny.
a process with a low success rate and a high incidence of genetic defects.
97. The first cloned mammal, Dolly:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
was stillborn.
developed arthritis and a virus-induced lung cancer at a relatively young age.
lived a short period of time before suffering advanced aging effects.
lived to a normal age for sheep.
lived longer than normal sheep.
98. Undifferentiated cells that can divide and specialize to form a variety of different cells
are called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
differential cells.
mother cells.
determinate cells.
stem cells.
morphogens.
99. Cells able to divide and form some types of cells in an organism are called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.
pluripotent stem cells.
terminal differentiation cells.
determinate cells.
morphogenic cells.
developmental plastic cells.
Totipotent human stem cells can apparently be obtained only from:
17 - 17
Chapter 17: Developmental Genetics
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
bone marrow.
umbilical cords.
cancer patients.
zygotes.
All of these.
The only known source of embryonic stem cells is:
placental tissue.
umbilical cords.
early human embryos.
brain tissue.
nerve tissue.
RNA interference is used to:
interfere with specific transcription factors.
knock out the expression of a specific gene.
prevent the duplication of DNA.
cause a mutation in a specific gene.
stimulate apoptosis.
Imaginal discs are:
found in mammalian cells and control gene activation in mature somatic cells.
paired groups of undifferentiated cells that are precursors of adult structures in
Drosophila.
found in plant cells and assist in the development of the flower.
part of the salivary gland of Drosophila.
found in Drosophila ovary cells and represent inactivated X chromosomes.
The role of maternal effect genes in Drosophila is to:
code for the production of yolk proteins.
prepare the female fly for reproduction.
control the early stages of Drosophila development.
control the development of the pupa.
control the shape and size of the eggs produced.
105.
Maternal effect genes of Drosophila are genes active in ____________
cells, whose products establish ____________ in developing embryos.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
maternal; gender
maternal; polarity
embryonic; polarity
embryonic; gender
egg; gender
106.
The first Drosophila segmentation genes to act are the ____________,
which begin organization of the body into regions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
pair-rule genes
segment polarity genes
gap genes
homeotic genes
maternal effect genes
17 - 18
Chapter 17: Developmental Genetics
107.
Use the figure to answer the corresponding question.
107.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The mutation labeled 1 to the far right in the accompanying figure is:
legs developing where antenna should be.
appendages of the eyes.
enlarged antennae.
newly formed structures to remove pollen or dust from the eyes.
a revision of the fly body so that legs and antenna have switched places.
108.
In the process known as ______________, the fate of a cell is influenced
by interactions with neighboring cells.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
determination
induction
inducement
differentiation
pleiotropy
109.
Instances in which cells die shortly after they are produced in
development is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
morphogenesis.
type C determination.
apoptosis.
non-specific differentiation.
caspases.
110.
humans.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
About _______________ of the genes in a mouse have a similar gene in
10%.
25%
50%
90%
99%
17 - 19
Chapter 17: Developmental Genetics
111.
____________ are organisms that contain two or more kinds of
genetically dissimilar cells from different zygotes.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Heterozygotes
Chimeras
Recombinants
Transgenics
Polyploids
112.
When the human gene coding for insulin is introduced into a mouse
embryo, the gene is correctly expressed in the appropriate tissue. This shows that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
tissue-specific gene expression is highly conserved during evolution.
the introduced gene was edited by the mouse embryo for proper function.
the introduced gene was exactly the same as the mouse gene for insulin.
mice and humans are not closely related.
mouse genes are not tissue specific.
113.
FALSE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
They
They
They
They
They
Which of the following statements concerning metastatic tumors is
are examples of neoplasms.
contain cancer cells.
have escaped controls on cell division.
are caused by the altered expression of genes.
are localized in one part of the body.
Malignant tumors are characterized by:
metastasis.
abnormal cell growth.
forming cell masses
specific mutations.
All of these.
Proto-oncogenes can be converted to oncogenes by:
mutation.
tumor suppressor genes.
growth factors.
transcription factors.
infection by certain viruses.
Genes that normally block cell division are called:
growth factor genes.
oncogenes.
tumor suppressor genes.
proto-oncogenes.
growth inhibiting genes.
17 - 20
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