Future African CiSes: the new post-‐ colonialism

Future African Ci.es: the new post-­‐
colonialism Vanessa Watson African Centre for Ci0es School of Architecture and Planning University of Cape Town 1 MDGs (2012): Africa Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 2: Achieve universal primary educa?on Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Goal 5: Improve maternal health Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Goal 8: developing global partnerships for development Status Trends X 47,5% s?ll earn less than $1.25 day. 70% of new jobs are informal. High inequali?es – 32 out of 43 have GIs above the world av, and half s?ll rising. √ 76% enrolment but oPen poor quality, comple?on rates oPen below 33% √ S?ll poor represented in the secondary and ter?ary educa?on sectors X Very slow decline, countered by rising food prices X Very slow decline X Slight HIV decline √ Improved water supply, but poor sanita?on con?nues X Impact of global financial crisis, con?nuing dependence on aid. 2 But something else seems to be happening in Africa … 3 Economic growth… The emerging middle-­‐class: 31m addi?onal ‘consuming’ households in the last decade, giving a total of 90m in 2011 McKinsey 2012 4 The spa?al impacts of middle-­‐class growth: More cars, more shopping malls, more suburban houses … 5 Kigale (Rwanda): 90% of residents live in informal housing or with unregulated tenure (UN Habitat, 2010) 6 The urban fantasy: the Oz Architecture Team (US), Adopted by the Rwandan parliament in 2008 7 8 Nairobi – Kenya 33% in informal seQlements 9 2030 Plan for Nairobi Kibera 10 Lagos -­‐ Nigeria 11 Lagos – Eko Atlan.c. Dar El-­‐ Handasah Shair + MZ Architects. Head office: Beruit Staffed: architects, engineers, economists 12 Kinshasa – Democra.c Republic of Congo 13 La Cité du Fleuve -­‐ Hawkwood Proper?es, US, (Mukwa Investment Company – US/UK). “This will be a model for the rest of Africa and showcase the new era 14 of African economic development” Maputo -­‐ Mocambique 15 Promontorio -­‐ Architects/Planners/Designers – head office in Portugal. “The new Maputo Waterfront – Vancouver-­‐style mixed-­‐use podia 16 under commercial towers…” Dar es Salaam (Tanzania): 70% of the popula?on live in ‘unplanned’ seplements 17 Dodi Moss S.I.r, (Italy) which submiQed its proposals in associa.on with three other firms: -­‐ Buro Happold Ltd (Britain based firm), Afri-­‐Arch Associates and Q-­‐Consult Ltd (both based in Tanzania) won the tender. 18 French architect – Le Corbusier 1887-­‐1965 Dubai 19 Head offices: Moscow, Dubai Africa offices: Lagos, Nairobi, Accra, Harare, Lusaka “Rendeavour seeks profits mainly by inves0ng in African areas with new mineral wealth; the development firm is part of an investment company”. Head offices: Beirut, Cairo, London, Pune. Engineers, architects, developers. Eko Atlan?c Lagos and projects in Angola 20 Smart ci?es 21 Smart ci?es: Kenya Konza Techno City, 60km from Nairobi Termed Silicon Savannah, launched 2013. HR&A (New York): Real Estate Strategists 22 M-­‐peza cellphone banking in Kenya 23 Eco-­‐ci?es Eko Atlan.c, Lagos. Dar Al-­‐Handasah (Shair and Partners) Sec.on of Kigale Master Plan (OZ Architects): “exemplifies many aspects of sustainable urbanism, with a mixed-­‐use core, eight neighbourhoods with community centres, extensive open space, and maximum use of sustainable infrastructure..” 24 Satellite Ci.es Tatu City outside Nairobi. Renaissance Partners (Moscow) “Imagine a new lifestyle for you and your family -­‐ in a safe and beau.ful urban environment, only a short distance from the Nairobi Central Business District.” 25 How do we understand what is going on in African ci.es? 26 Historical influence of colonialism on African ci?es Cape Town 27 A conflict of ra.onali.es – between those aQemp.ng to survive (and thrive) , and the desires of poli.cians, the middle-­‐classes and property developers. Kliptown: Johannesburg 28 La Cité du Fleuve – loss of urban agriculture and jobs 29 Ethics … 30 Is there a compe.ng vision? Muungano Kabimoto project -­‐ Nairobi 31 EXPANDABLE ROW UNITS – ELEMENTAL ARCHITECTS : IQUIQUE CHILE 32 Importance of public space – Cape Town 33 Mobility – provision for non-­‐motorized transport and public transport, and high density mixed use to cut the demand for trips. 34 Minimising the ecological footprint of ci?es – which implies a whole systems approach to urban development and infrastructure, as well as climate adapta?on and mi?ga?on ac?ons. 35 Sense of place and uniqueness, and respect for heritage Bokaap Cape Town 36 Thank you 37