SEQUENCING, SHOTS, ANGLES & MOVES CONTINUITY: The

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SEQUENCING, SHOTS, ANGLES & MOVES
CONTINUITY:
The proper development & connection
of motion picture sequences to create
a smoothly joined coherent motion
picture story.
SEQUENCE:
A related series of shots that
includes (4) components: the WS
(long shot), MS (medium shot), CU
(close-up), & RS (reestablishing shot).
GENERAL RULE: When shooting a new scene, change
the size of the image or change the
angle or both.
2-SECOND RULE: A shot lasting less than two seconds is
jarring and may look like a mistake.
(Exception: rapid cuts of less than
two seconds alternating between a
woman’s feet walking in a dark alley,
and a man’s feet running behind can
build excitement; also Montage).
COMPOSITION: Maintain adequate head room and
looking/nose room.
FRAMING:
OVER THE SHOULDER (OTS) TWOSHOT(2S) POINT OF VIEW (POV)
WIDE SHOT:
(WS, LS, ES) the establishing shot is
taken from a steady, stationary
position. Used to set the general
scene location.
MEDIUM SHOT: (MS, 2S, 3S) is a transition shot
bridging the jump from a WS to a CU
and builds up the subject. The lower
portion of the subject in a MS is
frequently cut-off.
CLOSE-UP:
(CU) creates closeness & intimacy. It
defines detail of an object or person.
The most expressive & revealing shot.
RE-ESTABLISHING
SHOT:
(RS) a medium or long shot usually
following a CU that again establishes
the general scene. The camera
generally pulls-back to establish
location. Used whenever a new subject
(live or inanimate) is introduced into
the story, or when a subject moves
from an old location to a new one.
Always use when re-introducing people
or action that have been off-screen
for a while. Reverse angle shots
(taken 180 degrees opposite the
original action) & panning action are
other ways to re-establish (RS).
EXTREME (WS): (EWS, XWS) provides a far distant
view on the area in which the action
takes place. Used to establish the
character or atmosphere of a location.
FULL-FIGURED: (FF, FS) comparable to a (MS). A FullFigured shot is a full frame view of
the human figure(s) (head to toe).
EXTREME (CU):
(ECU, XCU) provides an even closer
view of an object or person. Object
fills the screen. Used for dramatic
effect.
SECONDARY SHOTS
The use of secondary shots are subordinate to the main
action, but round out the story by giving it meaning
clarity, suspense and excitement.
The action the audience sees should be self-explanatory.
Have the subject do something. Avoid posing.
Dialog and narration are accessories to the visual image.
OVERLAP:
The re-shooting of action that took place
at the tail end of the preceding shot. It
bridges action in (MS) with the (CU).
Karen takes a drink from her coke (as a
MS), shoot the entire scene again (in CU).
MATCHING ACTION: Select frames in (MS) and
frames in the (CU) where the action is
most identical. Always match action on
motion. Discard unused footage between
MS & CU. Watch out for discrepancies!
(empty coke, burning cigar).
INSERTS:
Secondary shots that emphasize specific
visual information or heighten dramatic
impact in the main action. Play a key role in
transitions (e.g. falling calendar pages or
moving hands of a clock to depict the
passage of time, or a succession of
newspaper headlines to quickly advance the
plot. Also called (B-roll) useful in fixing
continuity errors.
CUT-IN:
Cuts into the main action. Supports the
current visual action or is part of the main
action. e.g. (MS) of sheriff to (CU) of him
drawing gun.
CUT-AWAY: Cuts away from the action to a related
subject or to a separate action that is
going on at the same time. e.g. (WS) of
sheriff in street, “cut-away” to patrons
watching from the saloon. These need not
be connected to the main action in the
same time or space frame. Always
establish “main action” before using the
cut-away.
HEAD-ON:
The action directly approaches the camera,
direct and dramatic (e.g. head-on approach
of a tank, shot from ground level shown
passing directly overhead).
TAIL-AWAY: Action moves directly away from the
camera. Used commonly as an ending
sequence (WS of subjects walking away).
POINT-OF-VIEW (POV): shot as if the observer were
viewing the scene from inside the camera.
OVER THE SHOULDER: camera is positioned so that
the shoulder of one subject appears in the
foreground while the face of another is in
the background.
REACTION SHOT: Is a direct result of the action of a
preceding or following scene (preceding
the action creates suspense).
REVERSE ANGLE: The camera is moved 180 degrees
opposite the preceding shot.
CONTINUITY & MOVEMENT: Always maintain constant
screen directions. e.g. parade filmed from
one side of street (action L-R), move to
the other side of street (action R-L).
Confuses audience. Avoid changes in
direction between shots. In traveling
documentaries keep the illusion of
constant screen direction unruffled.
CHANGING ANGLES: Used to smooth transitions within
a scene (to avoid jump cuts). Camera angle
needs to reinforce the main action. But do
not be “angle crazy.”
EYE LEVEL: Straight or normal angle mimics the usual
angle of vision
FLAT ANGLE: Camera parallel to the plane of the
subject (flat shot, 2-dimensional). Avoid
shooting stationary objects. Is most
effective when used with ”head-on” motion.
OBLIQUE:
Shot at a 45-degree angle. Looks dynamic
& dramatic.
LOW ANGLE: Exaggerates height makes subject appear
dominant. Speeds up subject motion.
HIGH ANGLE: Reduces height, makes the subject
appear inferior. Slows motion of a subject.
OVERHEAD: Camera placed directly overhead of
subject or action (e.g. crane, blimp or
helicopter shot)
HEAD–ON:
Gives the illusion of reducing speed.
SIDE-ON:
Gives the illusion of increasing speed
(horse race).
DUTCH ANGLE:
Angle other than eye-level, that
creates confusion, disorientation
(SFX)
EDITING CONVENTIONS:
PICK-UPS: (Shoot entire scene in WS then repeat
sections repositioned for MS & CU)
MONTAGE:
A series of brief shots, unrelated
pictorially cut together to create a theme
or mood. Story or idea related continuity.
(Train entering a tunnel, rocket launching,
pistons pumping etc.).
CONTRASTING DIRECTIONS: Builds suspense. Show
two persons approaching in opposite
directions. (Cross-cutting). Killer stalking
subject walks towards from one direction.
Always keep the direction of each subject
consistent.
DISTRACTION SHOTS: e.g. jump in between the two
groups shoot either a “head on” or “moving
away” shot (action explains direction).
Use a “cut-away.” Have the subject move
their head in the direction you wish to
shoot. Use a distant landmark (tower
mountain etc,) in the background of
successive shots with different screen
directions so that movement is visually
explained. Be creative.
CLEAN ENTRANCES & EXITS: A person on screen
should be shown coming from somewhere
and going somewhere. It is not selfevident. Subjects need to come from
beyond the screen boundary & go out
beyond the boundary.
CUT ON ACTION: (Duplicate action in both MS and CU;
cut on most similar of the two)
TRANSITIONS
CUT
DISSOLVE
FADE
SUPER (1/2 Dissolve)
WIPE
SPLIT (1/2 Wipe)
KEY (partial image layered over background image based
on video level)
CHROMA KEY (partial image layered over background
image based on bkgrnd. hue)
CAMERA MOVES:
DOLLY TRUCK ZOOM
CRANE PEDASTAL
TILT
PAN
ARC