Relationship Analysis between User's Contexts and Real Input

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Relationship Analysis between User’s Contexts and
Real Input Words through Twitter
Yutaka Arakawa, Shigeaki Tagashira and Akira Fukuda
Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
744, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, JAPAN, 819-0395
Email: arakawa, shigeaki, [email protected]
Abstract—In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate
effectiveness of our proposed context-aware text entry by using
Twitter. We focus on ”geo-tagged” public tweets because they
include user’s important contexts, real location and time. We
also focus on TV program listing because 50% traffic of iPhone
in Japan is generated from our home, in which I often tweets in
watching a TV. Cyclical collecting system based on Streaming API
and Search API of Twitter is proposed for gathering the target
tweets efficiently. In order to find the relationship between user’s
contexts and really used words, we compare really-tweeted words
with words obtained from Local Search API of Yahoo! Japan that
is used for our context-aware text entry and words obtained from
TV program listing. We analyze 471274 tweets that have been
collected from 15 December 2009 to 10 June 2010 for specifying
the relationship to landmark information and TV program. As a
result, we show that 5.1% of tweets include landmark words, and
9% of tweets include TV program words. Additionally, we bring
out that there are location dependent words and time dependent
words.
I. I NTRODUCTION
In a recent research in Japan[1], it is turned out that over
fifty percent of Internet users access the Internet from mobile
devices. And among them, over eighty percent users access
the information by using not hierarchical menu in official site
but search engines such as Google. Moreover, current mobile
devices can use not only text messaging but also web-mail
such as Gmail. It indicates that one has an opportunity to
input a long text. The increase of text input on mobile devices
drives the demand for improving a text input method.
Recent mobile phones generally equip clever text entry
which have a function of predictive transform. This function
consists of dictionaries, syntactic parsing, and learning. When
a user inputs “a”, it picks up the words which start with “a”
from a dictionary, and recommends some candidate words
which seems appropriate according to syntactic parsing. In
addition, based on user’s input history, such as frequency or
time stamp of latest use, it sorts the order of the candidates. In
these days, iWnn[2], one of Japanese text entry adopted many
kinds of mobile phones, suggests more appropriate words
according to current seasons, time, body of received e-mail, relationships between superior and inferior. As another approach
that differs from text entry, “Google Suggest” provides oftenused keyword combination for optimizing search terms and
reducing keystrokes.
Meanwhile we have proposed context-aware text entry[3]
which can suggest useful words based on user’s context
such as location, presence and time. We mainly focus on
how to make dictionary dynamically among above-mentioned
three component of predictive transform in text entry. The
reason is that the word not included in the dictionary cannot
be recommended, and we are not specialists of philological syntactic parsing. In our proposed system, based on
user’s current contexts, the dictionary in the mobile phone
is updated periodically in cooperation with the dictionary
creation server on the Internet, which generates user’s current
dictionary dynamically by using several public Web APIs. In
our current prototype, “location” and “time” are adopted as
a user’s context, and landmark names surrounding user are
added based on user’s location, and TV programs’ title and
performers’ name are added based on “time”. The reason why
we use TV program is that 50% iPhone traffic in Japan is
transmitted through home WiFi networks. As a result, if you
input “H” at neighbor venue of Globecom2010, the system
may suggest “Hyatt Regency Miami” as one of candidates. If
you input “J” or “K” in watching 24, the system may return
“Jack Bauer” or “Kiefer Sutherland” respectively. We have
already constructed the OpenWnn-based prototype system on
Android terminal[4]. We have already tried several system
architectures, and have confirmed that one of them can achieve
enough response time[5]. Also, we are evaluating our system
through demonstration and questionnaire with some persons.
Although our system looks effective, there is an important
remaining issue. Since we started this research with the
assumption that such kind of system will be convenient for us,
there is no evidence or quantitative evaluation for representing
the effectiveness. It is hard to gather large amount of results
through questionnaire-based evaluation. In addition, if we log
really inputted sentences in a mobile phone, we must consider
privacy protection in relation to personal data.
In this paper, we propose a method for evaluating contextaware text entry by using Twitter. Twitter is a micro blogging
service on the Internet, where a short message of up to 140
characters, called tweet, can be posted. And these tweets are
generally open for the public. The reason why we focus on
Twitter is 1) we can obtain huge amount of public strings of
various users, 2) Geotagging API released at November 2009
enables users to add geo code to each tweet. It means that
we can extensively and publicly collect real input sentences
that include users’ real location. Therefore, we think that to
analyze collected data clears up the relationship between user’s
Train Transit Application
E-mail Application
Map Application
Internet
Departure
Destination
Roppongi
I took a Yamanote train
Hyatt Regency Miami
Local device
External server
from Shinbashi. Soon, I
Tokyo
will arrive Shibuya. Meet
Acceleration
sensor
Dictionary is dynamically generated by using public APIs on the Internet
Bank of America, Hyatt,
Roppongi, Tokyo, etc.
Shinbashi, Hachiko
James L. Knight Center
Asynchronous
Roman character
Typical Effective Examples of context-aware text entry
Direct
plugin
IME
ATOK
contexts and real input words. As a result, it can show the
effectiveness of our proposed text entry quantitatively.
First, we construct the tweet collecting system that obtains
Japanese tweets with geocode, where we effectively combine
two APIs of Twitter, Streaming API and Search API to gather
huge amount of tweets. Our system has already gathered halfmillion tweets since 15 December 2009. Next, we analyze
collected data by comparing with the data that obtained from
other APIs. In this paper, we use “Yahoo! Local search
API[6]” for obtaining landmark information, and use “TV
program listing on the Internet” for obtaining TV programs’
title and performers’ name. These APIs are the same as APIs
for making dictionary in our context-aware text entry. In our
relationship analysis, both data are separated into some words
by using “Yahoo! Japanese language morphological analysis
API” and “Yahoo! Key phrase extraction API”.
As a result, we show that 5.1% of tweets include landmark words, and 9% of tweets include TV program words.
Additionally, we bring out that there are location dependent
words and time dependent words. The rest of the paper is
organized as follows. We present our context-aware input
method editor proposed previously in Section 2. In section
3, we explain about Twitter. And following section explains
relationship analysis. Finally, results are shown in Section 5.
II. C ONTEXT-AWARE T EXT E NTRY FOR M OBILE P HONE
Fig.1 shows a typical service examples in which our proposed context-aware text entry will work effective. It indicates
the importance of words varies with a location (i.e., user’s
context). For example, nearby station name is used at stations,
landmark name is used at a new places, product name is
used at bookstores and electronic retail stores. The most
characteristic point is that dictionary is automatically and
dynamically updated by mashing up public Web APIs in the
Internet. Nearest station API can be used for obtaining the
station name near here. Also, Landmark information API can
be adopted to search landmark names surrounding the user.
In addition, we introduced learning process into this system.
If a user selects the word in suggested candidates at the
station, the system judges it may be used at the same place
in the future. If the word is not used, it judges that the
word is not useful in this place. By repeating these learning
Japanese language
morphological
analysis
(MeCab)
Context-Aware
Select & Sort Engine
or
Location API
Yahoo API
Input
Hiragana
Schedule API
Presense API
Google API
Schedule API
Amazon API
Tabelog API
For making dictionary
Landmark Info. API
Train, Go, Take, Ride,
Other
sensors
API access module
(XML parser)
Schedule/Calender API
Shibuya, Shinjuku,
Global context
Feedback
Nearest station API
Context
updater
Local context
For estimation
Context Estimation
Engine
GPS sensor
at Statue of Hachiko.
API access module
(XML parser)
Route Search
Fig. 1.
Internal server
GuruNavi API
Output
"Personal Context
Dictionary"
mixture of Chinese characters and
Japanese phonetic characters
As a general dictionary
kana-kanji
conversion API
Fig. 2.
The architecture of prototype system
processes cyclically, the words related to a certain place
become suggested, and normal words will be suggested in
other place.
A. System architecture
The architecture of prototype system is shown in Figure 2.
It is composed of three parts, local device, our server on the
Internet, and general web services on the Internet. The local
device has various sensors such as GPS and acceleration. In
our prototype system, we use a PC as local device and adopt
the Google Maps API as GPS sensor for setting user ’
s location
visually.
The internal server in the center of Figure 2 is a main part of
our proposed system. It collects information and estimates of
user’s context, creates the dynamic dictionary, and suggests the
words by utilizing user’s context. These functions are possible
to construct on local device. However, we set it into the
server over the global network because it is important not only
accuracy of estimation algorithm but also processing speed.
Besides, we architect it works asynchronously to collect sensor
information by the system and to input text on local device.
The dictionary is updated whenever location is varied. As
a result, local device only searches pre-constructed database
when text is input. This architecture enable the system to
prevent the processing speed from slowing down when web
external servers increase.
The external servers in the right of Figure 2 are not our
servers but provided by several companies. In the case of this
prototype system, it cooperates with the Yahoo Local Search
API, Google Maps API, and Gurunavi API. Some words
provided by these APIs are materials of personal context-aware
dictionary.
We develop the two prototype systems. One is the extension
of OpenWnn of Android, another is ATOK Direct Plug-in for
Collect realtime tweets
from Streaming API
(10∼15% of all tweets)
・xxxxxxxx
Collect past tweets
from Search API
Filtering
Japanese
& Geotagged
(Users who once geotagged)
・xxxxxxxx
Twitter ID
・xxxxxxxxxx
Filtering
Japanese
& Geotagged
Time
・xxxxxxxxxx
・xxxxxx
・xxxxxx
・xxxxxxxxxxx
・xxxxxxxxxxx
Performer's name
Jack Bauer
Kiefer Sutherland
Keisuke Honda
Daisuke Matsui
etc.
・xxxxxxx
・xxxxxx
・xxxxxxxxx
・xxxxxxxxxxx
・xxxxx
(less than 1%)
・xxxxxxxxx
・xxxxx
Database
Many tweets
Fig. 3.
Real inputted texts
Yahoo! Local Search API
Landmark name
Hyatt Regency Miami
Bank of America
James L. Knight Center
Miami Convention Center
etc.
Language morphological analysis to parse sentences
・xxxxxxxxx
Tweets
Location
TV program listing
・xxx
・xxxxxxxxxxx
2010-06-28T17:04:25, 34.54324, 131.234234, Honda and Matsui, Good job!! #worldcup
2010-06-28T17:05:32, 33.59723, 130.217793, I am staying Hyatt Regency Miami.
Jack
Bauer
Kiefer
Sutherland
Keisuke
Honda
Daisuke
Matsui
Hyatt
Regency
Miami
Bank
America
James
Knight
Center
Convention
Honda
Matsui
Good
Worldcup
Hyatt
Regency
Miami
staying
Cyclical collecting system based on Streaming API and Search API
Fig. 4.
Windows and Mac. “ATOK[7]” is one of the major text entry
in Japan as well as Microsoft text entry.
B. Remaining Issue
Flow of relationship analysis
These APIs are the same as APIs for making dictionary in our
previously proposed context-aware text entry.
A. Cyclical collecting system for Twitter
Since we started this research with the assumption that
such kind of system will be convenient for us, there is
no evidence or quantitative evaluation for representing the
effectiveness. It is hard to gather large amount of results
through questionnaire-based evaluation. In addition, if we log
really inputted sentences in a mobile phone, we must consider
privacy protection in relation to personal data.
III. T WITTER
As you know, Twitter[8] is one of the major micro blogging
and social networking service today, in which a short message
of up to 140 characters, called tweet, can be posted. Tweets
are generally open for the public as a “public timeline”. Since
Twitter releases many kinds of API for general users, we can
obtain other user’s tweets through these APIs. In this paper,
we use Streaming API and Search API for obtaining tweets.
Streaming API that was officially released January 2010
allows near-realtime access to the user’s tweets timeline.
Tweets created by a public account are candidates for inclusion
in the Streaming API. However, Streaming API only provides
randomly sampled tweets which is about 10% of all the tweets.
Search API allows us to search Tweets with a query in which
we can set some parameters such as target text, language, user
id, geocode, time spam, etc. In this paper, we use this API for
collecting the past tweets of user who have once posted with
geocode. How to combine these two APIs is described in the
following section.
IV. R ELATIONSHIP A NALYSIS
For analyzing the relationship between user’s contexts and
really inputted sentences, we construct the collecting system of Twitter and compare collected tweets with landmark
information gotten from Yahoo! Local Search API[6] and
TV information obtained from online TV program listing[9].
We construct the tweet collecting system that obtains
Japanese tweets tagged with geocode, where we effectively
combine two APIs of Twitter, Streaming API and Search API
to gather huge amount of tweets. Fig.3 shows the cyclical
tweet collecting system based on Streaming API and Search
API. The reason to use two APIs is as follows. Since tweets
obtained through Streaming API consist of various languages,
we need to filter and pick up target tweets which are written
in Japanese and have geocode as shown in the left side of
Fig.3. As a result, we obtain only less than 1% of tweets. If
a user want to add geocode to own tweets, he must have a
client that can tag user’s current location through Twitter API.
In other words, a user once tagged is possible to post other
tagged tweets. Therefore, we pick up user IDs who posted
a geo-tagged tweet, and we collect their past tweets through
Search API cyclically.
B. Matching Process
A tweet consists of thee data, time information, location
information, and inputted text as shown in Fig.4. From location
information and “Yahoo! Local Search API”, we pick up the
surrounding landmarks’ name within one kilometer of user’s
current location. Examples of typical landmarks are station,
city hall, school, hospital, post office, and so on. From time
information and TV program listing, we pick up performers’
name and TV programs’ title. As a target channel to be
collected, we adopt 12 key stations in Tokyo area and Fukuoka
area. Fukuoka is the one of major cities located at west side of
Japan, where our university exists. Since it is hard to collect
past TV program listing and obtainable data is extremely large,
we only analyze data of about one-month (between 7 January
2010 to 2 February 2010).
All the data are separated into some words by using “Yahoo!
Japanese language morphological analysis API” and “Yahoo!
130.42
141.35
ᮐᖠ
43.06
Only Streaming API
༤ከ
33.58
Start: 15 Dec. 2009
Fig. 5.
End: 10 June 2010
Distribution of collected tweets per day
Fig. 6.
Geographical distribution of a location independent word: Noodle
139.7
Key phrase extraction API”. After that we compare these
words with each other and evaluate the matching rate.
Bunkyo-ku
V. R ESULTS
Fig.5 shows a distribution of collected 471274 tweets that
have been collected from 15 December 2009 to 10 June 2010.
Geographical scope of tweets is limited to Japan area, which
is equal to the area from latitude 24 north and longitude 123
east to latitude 46 north and longitude 146. This limitation
is due to the limitation of Yahoo! Local search API, which is
only provided by Yahoo! Japan. Since we used only Streaming
API at first, the number of tweets of the first one month is 10
or 100 times less than those of subsequent terms. It points
out that our proposed cyclical tweet collecting system is very
effective.
Average word count of collected tweets is 48.8 characters,
and tweets of about 30 characters are majority. From these
results, we think that an abbreviated notation is often used in
tweets. Average and maximum number of landmarks obtained
at a certain position from Yahoo! Local Search API is 22.9 and
71 respectively. 10.2% of position can’t obtain any landmark
information from this API. Maximum number of landmarks
per position is 66. Meanwhile, average and maximum number
of words gotten from TV program listing is 149.1 words/hour
and 790 words/hour respectively, which is about 10 times
larger than landmark information.
The percentage of tweets including the words obtained
according to the tweeted position is 5
Finally, we refer the dependency of time and location. Fig.6
shows a geographical distribution of tweets which include
“noodle”. Since plots are widely distributed all over Japan, the
Nakano-ku
Shinjuku-ku
Shinjuku
station
35.69
Chiyoda-ku
Shibuya-ku
Shibuya
station
35.66
Minato-ku
Meguro-ku
Fig. 7. Geographical distribution of location dependent words: Shibuya,
Shinjuku
word “noodle” can be determined as a location independent
word. On the other hand, we notice that each plot (circle and
plus) in Fig.7 is concentrated in certain areas respectively. In
this figure, circle plots and plus plots show the geographical
distribution of tweets which incude “Shinjuku” and “Shibuya”
respectively. Centers of concentrated areas are Shinjuku station
Sunday
“Ryoma-den” is a TV drama broadcasting
in NHK at 20 o'clock on every Sunday now.
“Ryoma-den” is a TV drama broadcasting
in NHK at 20 o'clock on every Sunday now.
Sunday
Sunday
Sunday
Sunday
9 May
Fig. 8.
16 May
23 May
30 May
6 June
Distribution of a time dependent word: Ryoma-den (per day)
and Shibuya station of JR (Japan Railways). From this result,
the word “Shinjuku” and “Shibuya” can be defined as location
dependent words.
Fig.8 and Fig.9 show a distribution of tweets which include
“Ryoma-den” per day and per hour respectively. “Ryoma-den”
is a popular TV program broadcasting in Japan Broadcasting
Corporation (NHK) at 20 o’clock on every Sunday now. As
shown in Fig.8, the number of tweets on every Sunday is
obviously larger than those on other day of the week. Also,
we can notice that the number of tweets at 20 o’clock is
remarkably larger than other time slots. As a result, the word
“Ryoma-den” highly depends on time.
We are now picking up other typical words that highly
depend on either time or location. We hope that by picking up
such context-aware words, our context-aware text entry system
will be improved.
VI. C ONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
In this paper, we have proposed cyclical tweet collecting
system and have collected over half-million geo-tagged tweets
written in Japanese for analyzing the relationship between
users’ context (location and time) and real inputted words.
We have collected 471274 tweets from 15 December 2009.
Statistical analysis shows that 5.1% of tweets include landmark words, and 9% of tweets include TV program words.
Addtionally, Geographical mapping indicates the evidence of
location/time dependence of real inputted words. As a first
step, we have focused on Japanese tweets, but this relationship
must exist regardless of language. We are now trying to pick
up the words with high location dependency by calculating
the geographical distribution ratio.
Fig. 9.
Distribution of a time dependent word: Ryoma-den (per hour)
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The work is carried out by joint research program of
the NTT Service Integration Laboratories and the National
Institute of Informatics. It is performed using the facilities
provided by them.
R EFERENCES
[1] rTYPE. (2009) Survey of mobile web site. (in Japanese).
[Online]. Available: http://release.center.jp/2008/11/0502.html (last
access:2009/12/1)
[2] OMRON SOFTWARE. (2009) iwnn. (in Japanese). [Online]. Available:
http://www.omronsoft.co.jp/SP/mobile/iwnn/ (last access:2009/12/1)
[3] S. Suematsu, Y. Arakawa, S. Tagashira, and A. Fukuda, “Network-based
context-aware input method editor,” in The Sixth International Conference
on Networking and Services (ICNS 2010), 7 March 2010, pp. 1–6.
[4] Y. Arakawa, S. Suematsu, S. Tagashira, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and
A. Fukuda, “Implementation of network-based context-aware japanese
input method editor,” in IEICE Technical Reports, ser. MoMuC2009-58,
vol. 109, no. 380, 21 January 2010, pp. 31–34, (in Japanese).
[5] S. Suematsu, Y. Arakawa, S. Tagashira, and A. Fukuda, “On improvement
of response time for network-based context-aware japanese input method
editor,” in IEICE General Conference, no. B-15-18, 19 March 2010, (in
Japanese).
[6] Yahoo Japan Corporation., “Yahoo! developer network- map,” http:/
/developer.yahoo.co.jp/webapi/map/(last access:2009/12/1), 2009, (in
Japanese).
[7] JustSystems Corporation, “Atok.com,” http://www.atok.com/(last access:2009/12/1), 2009, (in Japanese).
[8] Twitter, “Twitter,” http://twitter.com/.
[9] Toshiba, “Net de navi,” http://tvsurf.jp/tv/.
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