Issue No. 26 Thursday, 29 December 2011 How Photography changed our world Rania Salama “If your pictures aren’t good enough, you aren’t close enough” Any picture can speak 1,000 words, but only a select few say something poignant enough to galvanize an entire society. Photography has completely changed the world, our lives and our opinions on things. Photography is world’s most popular hobby and it is not just a picture on a piece of paper; it is used in movies, television, and in the newspapers. We use it to document family milestones, capture beauty, reveal the ugliness of war and stalk celebrities. Photography has changed the world way more than any other thing in the media. Our world no longer has its focus on words and paintings but now it is focused on the photograph. Photography has completely changed how we perceive ourselves and the world. During the American civil war, the people were shocked by the photographs of battle when they were published in the newspapers. This was the first time war had been photographed for the public, and the first time they had seen the reality of death. Before this they only heard stories and were told of the heroes but these stories were not always true. When they saw the pictures, the fields of the dead, the blood on the ground, people running around with a gun in their hand and blood all over their body, their ideas of war were totally changed. They had heard of death but actually seeing it was a whole different story. They began to look at war as a more serious life or death situation. Although you may have never thought about it, photography has had an incredible impact on all of our personal lives. Shooting, protecting and sharing our special memories has never been easier than with photography. However, the benefits of photos don’t end with great vacation photos, it has helped to improve far more than our ability to share and store photographs, and for many modern industries it is hard to remember a time before it existed. Four industries revolutionized by digital photography and its technology: Sports Cyber-Space During the last ten years, the internet has become a new way to socialise. The internet was once considered a great hangout for nerds but now has become one of the most important communication tools in the world. A large element of this communication is the uploading, sharing, and downloading of photographs. In Facebook alone there are over 10 billion pictures and growing none of which would be possible without digital cameras. Whether it’s sharing pictures of a wedding or taking photos during a crisis, digital photography has completely changed how people share their story. Photo by Manal Al Dabbagh Medicine Outer Space The medical industry has profited greatly from the development of digital photos. Thanks to the ease of transferring digital images, patient data can now be stored with relevant photographs and sent to any hospital in the Space exploration is thought to be one of humanity’s most significant achievements. Cutting-edge technology has enabled scientists to view things in space that had never been seen before, and the digital cameras mounted on the Mars Exploration Rovers have helped to shed light on a planet once shrouded in mystery. Without the ability to process images as data and transmit them across space, our view of outer space would still be very limited. world. No film means instant results for things such as X-rays or reference photographs, and photos can now be stored on a hard drive instead of taking up valuable space in a storage room. Many endoscopic procedures available today would not be possible without the technology of digital. It’s easy to take things for granted- like digital photography- that we use every day and have come to expect. But when you take a look back on all of the things that digital cameras have made possible, it’s hard to image our lives without them. Everything from advanced medical procedures to better study of the galaxy, digital has opened up many doors that wouldn’t have otherwise been discovered. Photography allows the world to share so much – from the depths of the oceans to the far reaches of space. But it doesn’t have to be ‘inspiring’ to be great. Your own photography may not be technically brilliant, it may lack the subject matter of the paparazzi but what makes your photograph great is that it was taken by you. It records a place, a time or an event in a lifetime that you can never physically go back to. It could be a view of the countryside or the most personal photo – it doesn’t matter. What matters is you took it and one day you may share it with someone else. Digital photography has completely changed how we capture sporting events and in order to fully appreciate its impact it requires a more thorough look. With digital photography it doesn’t have the limitation like 35mm cameras as there is no difference between taking a hundred pictures and taking one. Now sports journalists can take thousands of images at an event and can increase their chances of getting the “one in a million” shot without risking the high cost of taking hundreds of shots using film. Click Would it ever be possible to capture the ‘Kodak’ moments of life without the existence of a camera? Obviously not! We all aren’t artists. But every Tom, Dick, and Harry can click a photo. Photography isn’t only about recording moments or clicking images. It is a form of expression, a form of communication, a form of art and sometimes a form of craft. A photograph offers us a glimpse of the world through the eye, and in many ways through the heart, of other beholders. It is only through a photograph that we are able to see things and people, situations and landscapes, perspectives, angles, colours and shapes that we might never have noticed on our own. The more we look at photographs, the easier it is to perceive what we’re accustomed to ignoring. Photography creates a bridge between what we expect to see, and all there really is to see. It is literally an eye opening evolutionary process that brings the unseen into the light. Bloom throws light on this yet another true form of art that has excelled with technological advancement in the arena. It was indeed a pleasure to receive some interesting propositions from our readers. We thank you and wish to see a lot more of the kind in future. Continue writing to us at [email protected] qimqatar.com. Your feedback is always welcomed. So be it science, technology, lifestyle or fashion take your pick right away! And Facebook users keep liking our page! Follow us on www.facebook.com/BloomQatar 2 Health Thursday, 29 December 2011 A ‘healthy’ camera for summers Keeping your gear clean and in working order is one of the easiest ways to ensure your photo shoots go smoothly this summer. By cleaning and testing your camera before each use, you’ll catch problems before they become an issue. There’s nothing like an annual tune-up to keep things in tip-top condition. For photographers, it makes sense that now is the perfect time for an annual tune-up of your camera gear. Summer is just around the bend, so this is the perfect time to perform your annual camera tune-up. Whether you’re planning a trip to some scenic location, or simply planning a backyard party, you’ll want to have your camera ready to record your adventures. So before the plan is on, make sure your camera is in its best condition to capture the special moments. Here are a few easy steps for keeping your camera in good condition and ensuring your photos come out crisp and clear. Battery check-up Rechargeable batteries for digital cameras eventually lose the ability to hold their charge. For this reason, you will need to replace them every few years. Consider buying a second battery for your camera so you can stay ahead of the game and always have a fresh battery at the ready to replace the one you are using in your camera. Professionals always carry spare batteries for their gear. If you are taking a longer trip, don’t forget your charger. There are even car chargers that work in most rental vehicles for long road trips. Checking sensor dust Cleaning your camera To clean your sensor, scroll over to the sensor cleaning option in your camera’s menu. Then select clean manually. After this, you’ll hear your camera’s mirror flip up. Remove the lens or body cap and flip the camera upside down with it above you. Very gently brush the sensor with one or two strokes at a time. Every now and then, take the Butterfly out of the camera and activate the spinning action to get dust and specks off of it. Repeat this process until you no longer see any specks in your image. A bag helps A bag is likely to provide much better protection for your camera and other equipment than if you keep your camera loose in your suitcase, handbag, or briefcase. There are lots of soft and compact bags you can use to protect your camera. Just follow these simple tips, and your camera will be ready for all the great photo opportunities that summer has to offer! The one part of your camera’s exterior that you must keep clean is the lens. Dust and fingerprints will compromise the optical efficiency of your lens. That brings us to the most important subject related to cleaning your camera — before you clean your camera or any other photo equipment you own, remember one thing: Keep it simple. For most cleaning chores, the below mentioned tools are used: t Microfibre cloth Almost any photographer will tell you that one of the best items that you can keep in your camera bag is a Microfibre Cloth. It is small and inexpensive, and when used properly does the job of keeping your lenses and screens smear-free. Directions for use: simply apply light pressure to the smear and wipe it off. Sometimes, it is best used with a cleaning solution, like the Purosol Optical Cleaner. Memory cards Particularly if you have plans for a summer vacation, family reunion, or other big event in the coming months, it makes sense to stock up on memory cards ahead of time. Don’t wait to buy them at airports or expensive tourist stores — if you do that, you’ll pay much more than you would from a photo specialty store or online vendor. t Purosol optical cleaner The Purosol Cleaning Solution is environmentally safe and it will not harm your lenses. The cleaner has an enzyme-based formula which quickly disrupts the molecular bonds that salt, grime, grease, dirt and mineral deposits use to adhere to surfaces. Use it in combination with your microfibre cloth, and remember— less is more in this case. Keeping it clean t Rocket air blower The most important thing is to try to avoid the need to clean in the first place. Try to keep your camera away from the elements that cause the most harm: dirt, dust, sandy grit, and saltwater spray are the mortal enemies of most types of cameras. Keep your camera protected if you’re on a windy beach and the sand is flying. Don’t get too near those big waves to take the picture of your son frolicking in the surf. Use your zoom lens instead. It goes without saying that it’s best to keep your camera off the picnic table or other spot where it might be vulnerable to a spilled drink or a glob of jelly from a passing sandwich. The Rocket Air Blower is a favourite of many photographers for getting rid of dust, especially when shooting in environments where dust and debris are common. Squeezing the blower emits a burst of compressed air which blows away any dust. To clean your sensor, set your camera to manual cleaning mode, in order to expose the sensor. Hold the camera above you with the sensor facing downwards, using light squeezes from the air blower on the sensor to clean it. tMany Arctic butterfly photographers are scared to touch their camera’s sensor, as it is very delicate. The Butterfly is a special brush that one uses to gently sweep the sensor of dust. When you’re finished, you activate the button on the brush to make it spin, getting rid of particles that may be stuck on it. tTheLenspen Lenspen, which can accomplish most of what a microfibre cloth can, is housed in a convenient and portable package. The non-liquid cleaning compound contained in the brush is good for eliminating dust, grime and fingerprints from your filter and other parts of your camera. As an added bonus, the tip of the Lenspen is small enough to fit into those hard to reach areas of your viewfinder as well. Fitness Tips for Photographers If it is physically challenging for you to move around or lug your camera equipment on the streets or through the woods, perhaps you should think a bit about fitness. It’s great if it’s easy to move around with your gear. And if not, these tips will help you keep that ease of movement long into your twilight years. Back, legs/knees, hands/ fingers, eyesight and balance are the key areas for photographers. These tips will concentrate on these specific areas and will help you get and stay in photography shape. Back If you’ve ever carried a camera bag around for more than one hour this needs little explanation - your back has explained it to you. What to do? Well, the key to a strong and stable back is a strong stomach. Not many of us like sit-ups or crunches but they are two of the best exercises for your back. Recent science has shown that even better than doing simple stomach exercises to strengthen your back, is to focus on your “core” muscles. A ten to fifteen minute regimen twice a week on these core muscle exercises will do wonders for you, your back and your photography. Legs/Knees You need good legs to get to those fabulous photography locations, as they are usually well off the shoulder of the highway. Going for a 20-30 minute walk right out your front door is the best thing you can do to keep your legs and knees in good health. Add some simple exercises and some stretches to your daily routine and you will be in good shape. Hands/Fingers Ever tried to hold your camera over a ledge by grabbing the camera by hand and stretching your arm out? Did you worry about dropping the camera? Or have you ever dropped a camera or lens while changing lenses? Having strong hands and fingers can keep that camera safely under control (and stable). Get a simple and inexpensive grip exerciser and do some hand stretches. Eyes Good eyes are critical for focusing and framing. You also need good vision to see the tiny dials and settings on your camera and to read those many, many menus on the display screen. Doing a few, simple eye exercises can help prevent eyestrain, keep your eyes healthy and maybe even delay the inevitable loss of visual acuity. Balance You need good balance to carry your camera gear and keep steady while handholding for a shot. You really need good balance if you’re out on the trails or in the wild. A twisted ankle, dropped camera gear or fall off of a cliff will ruin your photography experience. The concrete jungle poses the same hazards. Well, maybe not falling off of a cliff, but falling off of a curb into oncoming traffic because you were unbalanced while fumbling with your camera bag is probably just as unpleasant. To prevent these unfortunate scenarios from happening to you, take a few minutes three times a week to do exercises that will help you improve your balance. There you have it. Simple exercises that you can do at home or on the road that will help you enjoy your photography for many years, and maybe even well into your second century. Fine Living Thursday, 29 December 2011 3 Viewing the Arab world through paintings, sculptures and lenses Modern Arab Art The Arab art sc en Western world. e has gone long unnoticed by mentioned mod Until few years ago, hardly an the er Arab region. N n and contemporary art fromyone grounded and egative political events were the th associated with e Arab world was more re fore than with art an terrorism and religious fanatiadily d culture. cism The different fo photography ha rms of Arab art, from painting ve the internationa meanwhile caught the attent s to io and aficionados l art world. More and more, colle n of are occupied by ctors for works by A rab artists. Thisthe increasing prices affected by the has certainly which has unde recent changes in the Gulf re been rt expand its cultur aken grand projects to bolste gion, r and al infrastructure . The development of an Arab art in regard to global modernism began early in the 20th century, as a direct result of the increase in mutual influences between East and West. Since then, the demand for Arab art is a growing trend. Not only the mammoth projects to expand the Gulf region’s cultural infrastructure and the success of the auction houses have contributed to the growth of worldwide interest in Arabic art; other factors have also been significant. Especially after September 11, 2001, Western interest in Islamic and Arabic themes greatly increased. After this, it became possible to realize exhibitions with Arab art that had previously encountered resistance by museums. Recent years have witnessed exactly that which gallerists addressed in the earlier art fair survey: the work of the museums that would pave the way to the art market. Major exhibitions over the last five years in London and Paris, in Bonn, Frankfurt, Aachen und Berlin, in Abu Dhabi and Dubai as well as elsewhere have contributed to the growing interest of the art world for Arab art. With this growing interest, new galleries have been established not only in the Gulf region, but growing demand along with a heightened sensibility for its own art has made the process easier for new galleries than it was for the “pioneer” galleries in the Arab States. The pioneering galleries include the Majlis Gallery in Dubai, Agial Gallery in Beirut, Atassi Gallery in Damascus and Zamalek Gallery in Cairo. Also in Cairo, the Townhouse Gallery opened in 1998 has played a key role in the development of the contemporary art scene. Recently, new galleries have emerged mostly in the Gulf States, such as the Third Line Gallery, the B21 Gallery and the Total Arts Gallery in Dubai; the Waqaf Arts Centre in Doha, Qatar; and the Ghaf Art Gallery in Abu Dhabi – to name a few. The Third Line Gallery, founded in 2005, has meanwhile opened a satellite in Doha. Its mission includes the support of young artists. Art has been produced in countries such as Syria, Egypt, Lebanon and Morocco for well over 100 years. The museums for modern Arabic art in Cairo and Kuwait for example, offer a good overview of creative production of the times. Painters and sculptors of earlier eras are in equal demand as contemporary artists on the art market. In Saudi Arabia and especially in Qatar there are high calibre collections of the Classical Arab Modern compiled over decades by their collectors and which will soon be on display in forthcoming Museums for Modern Arab Art such as that in Qatar. A renewed survey of leading gallerists revealed that many wish to introduce their own artists into the Arab world and create a market there, but will otherwise wait to see how the market for Arab art develops. Despite the repeated emphasis of the importance of the art market’s role in the growing interest in Arab art, one should not ignore the fact that art has more than material value. Art with its universal appeal gives us the possibility to understand more about ourselves and explore a deeper sense of being. Art also allows us to learn more about other cultures. It conveys aesthetic, ethic and spiritual values. Art has never kept to a single country or nation, and throughout the centuries, art has always surpassed boundaries. Photography Photography in the Arab world was introduced by colonial occupiers in the mid-19th century. The medium was, at first, dominated by Western practitioners who focused primarily on antiquities, regional landscape, and exotic traditions. After which local photographic production rapidly flourished. The first Armenian-organized photography workshop took place in Jerusalem in the 1860s. It was only after the introduction of the easy-to-use Kodak box camera in 1888, the hunger for photographic images increased dramatically. In the following decades photography continued to expand, especially around the turn of the 20th century, when Armenian exiles, many of them trained as photographers, began fleeing Turkey for neighbouring countries. As photography spread throughout Middle Eastern culture, modernization was transforming the region. The social, political, and economic lives of the emerging nation-states gave rise to liberation movements along with an evolving awareness of geography and identity. Modern urban planning was implemented, labour and women’s movements developed, and literary and artistic forms focused on identity as the central issue in developing new socio-political realities. Contrary to Western images of the Arab world, which often depicted marginalized or dehumanized subjects, photographs by indigenous Middle Eastern inhabitants captured mundane lives in these changing communities. The Museum of Islamic Arta cultural icon for the Gulf The Museum of Islamic Art is the flagship project of the Qatar Museums Authority, which under the leadership of its Chairperson, H.E. Sheikha Al Mayassa, has transformed the State of Qatar into a cultural capital of the Middle East. Qatar Museums Authority was created in December 2005 to combine the resources of all museums in the State of Qatar. The QMA’s vision revolves around the provision of a comprehensive umbrella under which future plans will be drawn for the development of national museums and the establishment of an effective system for collecting, protecting, preserving and interpreting historic sites, monuments and artefacts. Designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect I.M. Pei, the 376,740-square-foot Museum of Islamic Art in Doha Bay houses a collection of international masterpieces in galleries encircling a soaring, five-storey-high domed atrium. The Museum, an architectural icon 60m (195ft) off Doha’s Corniche, rises from the sea and is connected to shore by two pedestrian bridges and a vehicular bridge. A C-shaped peninsula and park area on the shoreline behind the Museum offer shelter and a picturesque backdrop. The Museum is composed of a fivestorey Main Building and a twostorey Education Wing, which are connected across a central courtyard. The Main Building’s angular volumes step back progressively as they rise around a 50-m-high (164ft) central domed atrium. The dome is concealed from outside view by the walls of a central tower. A sheet of glass rises to a height of 45m (148ft) on the north side of the Museum offering views of the Gulf and West Bay area of Doha from all five floors of the atrium. Ceilings are constructed of intricate cast-in place architectural concrete c o ff e r e d domes, finished with individual moulds. At the top of the atrium is the circular oculus of a stainless steel dome, which captures facets of patterned light. The form of the dome changes as the structure descends, so its perimeter becomes an octagon and then a square, which in turn is transformed into four triangular column supports. The Education Wing includes a light-filled reading room in the Museum library, classrooms, workshops, study spaces, and technical and storage facilities. Among the latter is the conservation laboratory, an important new resource for the entire region. Underscoring the central role of education in the Museum of Islamic Art, the Education Wing hosts educational and community activities to develop and foster an understanding and appreciation for Islamic art. The Museum of Islamic Art is dedicated to reflecting the full vitality, complexity and diversity of the arts of the Islamic world. It is a world-class collecting institution, which preserves, studies and exhibits masterpieces spanning three continents and 13 centuries. As a centre for information, research and creativity, the Museum aims to reach a wide global audience and serve as a hub for dialogue and cultural exchange. 4 Lifestyle & Travel Thursday, 29 December 2011 Playing with photographs Thanks to digital photography and cell phone cameras, it’s easier than ever to amass a vast collection of pictures of special moments and familiar faces. Unfortunately, most of those precious images are stuck in a computer and rarely see the light of day. It’s a cinch to press the shutter button, but what happens afterward? Once you realise photographs can be used to create home accents, the big picture gets more interesting -- and inspiring. Many snapshots can be transformed into decorative objects as modern and arresting as anything you’d find in a design store. The trick is not to limit photos to the usual frames (or to areas such as the top of a piano or side table), and to begin visualizing other places and objects around the house as potential exhibition spaces. Frameless photographs can be mounted on sturdy art boards and linked by small hinges for an accordion structure. Sort through photographs, set aside the best ones, and then think about which types of displays would highlight them effectively. Soon you’ll be thinking of the digital files on your computer not just as images, but as the makings of your next conversation piece. Some projects require an ink-jet or a laser printer, so read through the instructions and consider your equipment before deciding what to make. You can use photo-editing software to enlarge and crop images, draw attention to the details you like most, and convert colour shots to blackand-white or sepia tones. Still lifes and simple shapes set against plain backgrounds work particularly well for the photos with trim, the photo cubes, and the stationery set. Don’t overlook non-digital photos, which can be scanned into a computer and modified. Copies of family photos can enhance household objects, such as a vintage vanity tray. A glazier can cut a piece of glass to fit inside the tray to protect the image. Photos of pets and other animals cab be cut out and glued to cards to create a stationery set. Bottle caps can be set in with small black-and-white pictures and can be used as magnets and thumbtacks. Sepia landscapes, can be framed by a decorative trim. Black-and-white images of nature could form photo cubes. A moody photograph can turn into the face of a clock. The image is inserted by unscrewing the back of a clock, gently removing its hands with pliers, and then pulling apart the face and the mechanism. The face of the clock is traced onto the back of the photograph, and the cut-out is attached to the face with double-sided tape. Then the clock is reassembled. Onc pho e your use tograp realis acced to cr hs can e pict nts, t eate h be inte ure ge he big ome insp restin ts mor irin g an e g! d Framing images Photo frames are smarter and more stylish way of enjoying your collection of photos. Artistically designed, picture photo frames also serves as decorative piece complementing the interiors. The picture frames are commemorative to the ‘kodak’ moments of life. They are also useful for displaying certificates, diplomas and appreciation letters. Creatively designed photo frames can be seen displayed in offices and boardrooms. Photo frames let you relive those enchanting moments from the past. The frames hook together allow for artful collaging of family, wedding, baby or travel photos - whatever suits your mood and ambiance. Picture frames also make worthy gift for your dear ones, friends and family. It is amongst the most sought after gifts that can be easily afforded by all class of people. Picture frames are available in variety of finishes, designs and materials. They can also be customised to suit a specific theme or choice of an individual. Custom photo frames add a personal touch to the decor, and redefines the look of your interior. But, with rampant rise in the demand for and use of digital components, the world of photo frames has become digitized. Digital photo frames, though not embraced by all and sundry due to some people’s ignorance of technology, still climbing the popularity chart at a cracking pace. In fact, it is giving a tough fight to the traditional picture frames. The best way to show off your snaps Given that most of us don’t live in houses with huge grand pianos on which to display serried ranks of silver photograph frames, we need to find other ways of showing off our nearest and dearest without cluttering up every available surface and turning the place into a shrine. Earlier it was regarded as a bit common to hang photos all over the walls, but we can overlook that these days, which does at least give you a bit more room to manoeuvre. As we all know that cherished photos deserve to be displayed prominently in our home, here are few fantastic ways to embellish and arrange the pictures you hold close to your heart. Creating a photo gallery Adorn your walls with a beautiful gallery of photographs using this simple process. Tools and materials: t Measuring tape and ruler t Paper (one large sheet or several small sheets) t Tape (optional) t Picture frames t Pencil t Painter’s tape t Picture hooks t Nails t Hammer Directions: 1.Measure the wall space you want for your gallery. Cut a piece of paper to that size (tape several large pieces of paper together, if necessary). Fold paper in quarters to mark centre lines. 2.Lay paper on the floor and experiment with different design layouts for your frames. Once you are happy with the frame layout, trace the outline of each frame onto the paper with a pencil. Use a ruler to make sure your outlines are straight and spaced evenly. 3.Measure distance from top of each frame to where hook will be placed. Mark these points within the corresponding outlines on your paper layout. 4.Tape paper to wall with painter’s tape. Nail picture hooks where marked. Remove paper. 5.Place all frames on hooks. A photo family tree Here’s a unique way to showcase a branch of your family lineage. To unify the photos and other components of your display, try creating photo borders and labels using a single family of colours. Tools and Materials t Collector box t Rose leaf punch t Coloured craft paper t Adhesive foam dots t Pen t Small tree branch t Glue pen t Scissors t Ribbon-style labels Directions: 1.Punch out leaves with a rose leaf craft punch and label with names. Find a small fallen branch with a nice shape and glue leaves on with glue pen, arranging names based on where you will place your photos. 2.Add a simple border to a photo by cutting out a piece of coloured paper 1/8 inch larger than photo on all sides. Glue photo to paper, then attach adhesive foam dots to back to add dimension. Pin photo at corners into collector box backing. 3.Create a small banner containing your family name or a title using alphabet transfers on ribbon-style labels. Place over bottom of branch and pin at each end. Science 5 Thursday, 29 December 2011 Photography; a flash back Vinodh K. Pisharom Cameras have become an inseparable part of almost all conceivable devices, and an essential contraption for modern man that it may not be long before we see them growing as additional sense organs on our anatomy. From desktop computers, laptops, tablets, mobile phones, pens, and whatnot, cameras are everywhere, ready to snap special moments, and even to snoop into someone’s privacy. By and large, it is getting increasingly difficult not to get exposed to the nosey eyes of the ever-present camera. From the present, as we focus back into the past, it can be seen that man has always wanted to record himself, his deeds, exploits, and the environs. Early cave paintings, dating back to several centuries, portray this instinctive trait of mankind, which apparently has pursued him through ages to the present. The phrase ‘cave paintings’ may obscure the vast range of methods used to create works of non-portable art on rocks and cave walls by prehistoric painters. He is believed to have used practically all the fundamentals of modern graphic art like drawing, painting, sculpting, engraving, chipping, daubing, stencilling, and so on to express himself. He derived pigments from organic and inorganic sources, which may have gone through several trials for permanence, until he discovered colours that would stand the test of time. From the Palaeolithic age through the bygone centuries to the recent past, unknown and renowned painters have left remarkable pictorial histories of our journey through time. 2 Daguerreotype Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre is perhaps the most famous among several people who invented more successful and commercially applicable forms of photography. He regularly used a camera obscura as an aid to painting in perspective, which probably led him to seek ways of making the images permanent. After a brief partnership with Niepce, Daguerre continued to experiment until he discovered a chemical process which would reduce exposure time and fix the image permanently. Daguerreotype, as he named the process, used silver coated copper plates, exposed to iodine vapour, for the camera obscura. These plates, the forerunners to our modern film, had to be exposed to light for up to 15 minutes to create the image. Daguerre’s invention made it possible for anyone of moderate means to have a portrait created. Most people embraced this new technology with great enthusiasm. A few religious zealots, however, claimed that it was the work of the devil. Many artists who had trained for years in the techniques of portrait painting were also to find it a threat to their livelihood. Some painters dubbed the new invention “the foe-tographic art.” A number of artists turned to photography for their livelihood, while others cashed in on the fact that the images were in monochrome, and began colouring them in. Despite this wide acceptance, long exposure time and fragility of the image gradually made Daguerreotypes unpopular for portraiture until it was replaced in the late 1850s by emulsion plates. Camera Obscura The term, “Photography” (Greek for light & writing), was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839, the year the photographic process became public. The innovations which would lead to the development of photography existed long before the first photograph. The ‘camera obscura’ (Latin for dark room), which had been in existence for at least four hundred years, used a pinhole in a tent to project an image from outside on to the opposite wall in the darkened tent. A person inside the tent could trace the inverted image projected, but there was no other way of recording it. In the 17th and 18th centuries, a table-top model, small enough to be portable, was developed. By adding a focused lens and a mirror, it was possible for a person outside of the box to trace the image which was reflected through it. It was a French man, Nicephore Niepce who produced the first photograph in June/ July 1827. By using chemicals on a metal plate, placed inside of a camera obscura, he was able to record an obscure image of the view outside of his window. He called his process “heliography”. The exposure lasted several hours and he had difficulty fixing the image so that it would not continue to darken when exposed to light. 4 Dry Plates In the 1870s, photography took another huge leap forward. Richard Maddox improved on a previous invention to make dry gelatine plates that were nearly as good as wet plates for speed and quality. These dry plates could be stored rather than made as needed, giving photographers much more freedom in taking photographs. Cameras gradually reduced in size, small enough to be hand-held. As exposure times decreased, the first camera with a mechanical shutter was developed. Instant cameras 3 Emulsion plates Emulsion plates, or wet plates, were more sensitive to light, less expensive than Daguerreotypes, and took only two or three seconds for exposure. This made them much more suited to portrait photography, which was in vogue at that time. It was during this time that bellows were added to cameras to help with focusing. Image Control 7 While the French introduced the permanent image, the Japanese brought easy control of their images to the photographer. Asahi, which later became Pentax, introduced Asahiflex in 1950, while Nikon introduced Nikon F. Both were single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras that typically use a semi-automatic moving mirror system, permitting the photographer to see exactly what will be captured by the film or digital imaging system. For the next 30 years SLR-type cameras remained the camera of choice and many improvements were introduced to both the cameras and the film itself. 5 At the same time 35mm cameras were becoming popular, Polaroid Corporation introduced the Model 95, the first of Edwin Land’s instant picture cameras, in 1948. Model 95 used a secret chemical process to develop film inside the camera in less than a minute. This new camera was fairly expensive but the novelty of instant images caught the public’s attention. By the mid -1960s, Polaroid had many models in the market and the price had dropped so that even more people could afford it. Smart Cameras 8 In the late 1970s and early 1980s compact cameras that were capable of making image control decisions on their own were introduced. These “point and shoot” cameras calculated shutter speed, aperture, and focus; leaving photographers free to concentrate on composition. While these cameras became immensely popular with casual photographers, professionals and serious amateurs continued to prefer to make their own adjustments to image control. 1 6 Cameras for everyone Photography was confined to professionals or the very rich until George Eastman started a company called Kodak in the 1880s. The flexible roll film he created instead of the solid plates, lead to the development of a self-contained box camera that could hold 100 exposures of film. This camera, with a single lens and no focusing adjustment, was inexpensive enough for the average person to afford. It had to be sent back to the factory for developing the film, much like the disposable cameras of today. With his slogan “You press the button, we do the rest” Eastman brought photography to the masses. The film was still large in comparison to today’s 35mm film. It took until the late 1940s for 35mm film to become cheap enough for most people to afford.to portrait photography, which was in vogue at that time. It was during this time that bellows were added to cameras to help with focusing. The Digital Age In the 1980s and 1990s, numerous manufacturers worked on cameras that stored images electronically. The first of these were point and shoot cameras that used digital media instead of film. By 1991, Kodak had produced the first digital camera advanced enough to be used successfully by professionals. Other manufacturers quickly followed and today Canon, Nikon, Pentax, and other manufacturers all offer advanced digital SLR cameras. Just like a conventional camera, digital camera has a series of lenses that focus light to create an image of a scene. But instead of focusing this light onto a piece of film, it focuses it onto a semiconductor device that records light electronically. A computer then breaks this electronic information down into digital data. All the fun and interesting features of digital cameras come as a direct result of this process. Digital camera technology continues to improve each year as point and shoot cameras get closer and closer to professional-level cameras. Companies are now coming out with digital technologies and effects that our predecessors never even dreamed possible. From obscure cave paintings to vivid images of digital cameras, innovations have helped man to immortalize his journey through time. It took the cognitive and creative skills of early man to express his imagination as visible images on the interiors of caves. Call it the quirk of fate or advancement of technology; it takes only motor skills of modern man to click a button than his intellectual and imaginative skills, to capture vivid images on his digital camera. Ironically, the images so captured and stored as digital data in the integrated circuits of the camera, are invisible and incomprehensible to mankind, unless printed or displayed on other electronic devices. 9 6 Technology Thursday, 29 December 2011 ! e s e e h C y Sa Nawras R. Dia If you think Christmas day is over and you can relax now and stop worrying about gifts and parties, then you are dead wrong. Christmas day may be over, but the ultimate New Year’s bash is just around the corner! Besides the tips and tricks of throwing a good NYE party, as a good host your responsibilities go far beyond the good food, pleasant drinks, and general ambience. Your main duty at your party is to take on the role of the historian who strives to document and expose the twisted over-the-top fun which you all had. And later on post them on Facebook or Google+ of course, which is the most sacred and demanded ritual of them all since literally tens of thousands of judging eyes will be ogling their computer/mobile screens waiting to see a picture of them posing in front of a Christmas tree or passed out on the dinner table after stuffing down a bit too much apple cider! And as any good historian will tell you, it’s important to have a good fluid pen and an extra batch of ink to record any special moment that might jump up behind you. Well, the tools of the trade for any successful NYE party is a powerful Digital Camera, and extra fully charged battery, and some other assorted items which will keep you ready to immortalise that special moment! Since you’re already on your way to becoming broke after all the money you spent on the party, you will need a good, cheap and advanced camera to help you bring out the photography monster inside! The only way to go is through a DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) camera. Sony Alpha A230 DSLR Camera.. a reason to say Cheese! Priced at a measly Qrs. 1,300 only, which is a good deal for the power that lies beneath its sleek and modern exterior, the Sony A230 is a shining example of why an over-the-top camera doesn’t have to have an over-the-top price. Designed for the amateur photographer who wants to put that extra artistic touch to photos, this camera has it all. Tech Specs It uses a 10.2-megapixel APS-C sized CCD sensor, outputting a 3872 x 2592 image in a choice of .ARW Raw files or JPEGs, which are also available in 5.6MP (2896 x 1936) and 2.5MP (1920 x 1280) sizes, all in Fine or Standard compression. The sensor is mounted on a sensor-shift mechanism for the recently renamed and updated Steady Shot Inside image stabilization, which promises between 2.5EV and 3.5EV of effect on all lenses. This sensor-shift, along with an anti-static coating, also helps minimize dust build-up in front of the sensor. Focusing is taken care of with a phasedetection TTL system with nine AF points, the centre point being a cross sensor for added sensitivity. Shooting modes have been kept relatively simple on the top dial. There’s a full Auto mode, a Program auto, Aperture and Shutter-priority modes, plus six individually selectable scene modes and a ‘no flash’ option. The 2.7in 230,400-dot LCD screen is also home to all of the shooting information, which can be displayed in purely numerical values or in a graphical format, with handy sliding diagrams for the aperture and shutter values. marvel in the light weight this camera boasts, you’ll be taking pictures left & right before you know it. The Verdict Let’s face it, parties sometimes go crazy, and the crazier it gets, the more fun people have! But by the time you sober up and get ready to go back to work the next day, you will need some visual aids to brag about what you did last night, or at the very least remember yourself how the party went on since some memory spots have probably gone missing! Handling In a party, let’s just say that it gets pretty difficult for someone to focus their eyes, let alone steady a camera and take a quality picture. If that’s usually the case for you, then rest assured that the focusing-detection feature in the Sony A230 will help you take those quick shutter-bug pics without them appearing to have been taken from a moving car! The sleek, curvaceous body may take some time to get used to, but once you get the feel and grip of it, and Weekly App Review Pano Photography App If you have a love for photography, especially taking still scenery photos, then this app is definitely for you. Impress your friends & family with incredible widescreen panoramic photos from your travels with this handy and simple camera app. Available for The cool thing about this camera is its ability to quickly snap those priceless moments with its DSLR technology, auto focus features, and for the more experienced photographers, picture attribute adjustments. You also have the ability to quickly download whatever pictures you took onto your laptop, or even remove the memory card to take it with you to work and share it with your office mates, hoping your boss won’t find out. So if you’re looking for a budget camera with some impressive features, 1300 Qrs. is well worth the investment of buying the Sony Alpha A230 DSLR. Last but not least, have a happy new year, and drive safe! App Features: t Priced at 1.99 $. t Created seamless panoramic photos from up to 16 images. t Very simple and userfriendly interface. t Handy semi-transparent guide helps you line up each consecutive shot perfectly. t Intelligently aligns, blends and stiches your photos together in a seamless single image. Beauty Thursday, 29 December 2011 Make your pictures sparkle! Photo505.com Some sites contain dozens of templates — of art galleries, urban scenes and locations like the Sphinx in Egypt. For example, users can put a picture of themselves into a scene from Times Square so that it looks as if the user’s image is on a billboard. The site also has tools to digitally detect a person’s face, extract it from a picture and graft it onto the head and body of another image, like Santa Claus or the Mona Lisa. Photo505.com is such a site, based in Russia which offers a wide array of templates, and can place a face in a wanted poster or the cover of a magazine like Cosmopolitan. Before Photofunia.com and fotoflexer.com After Photofunia.com, which is based in Ukraine, merges or mash up images. Whereas the fotoflexer.com aims at transforming pictures to look as if they come from another time or place. Similar sites have a more commercial aspect as well; selling products like lipstick by letting you try it by painting a virtual copy of the makeup on a photo of yourself. Aviary.com, Splashup.com and Citrify.com Sites like Aviary.com, Splashup. com and Citrify.com are competing to offer simple tools for cropping an image, fixing red eye or making other tweaks to an image. Before After Bighugelabs.com Who said enhancing a photograph is not that easy? It is as easy as pie! There are websites that cater to novices, unlike sophisticated software packages like Photoshop, making it possible to create a greeting card, make photo collages, design new images for a website and tweak personal photographs without doing much more than clicking a button. Here are few websites that makes photo retouching quick and easy. Yet another site is Bighugelabs.com, where users create badges, jigsaw puzzles and art work. It has almost a half million registered users. The most popular service produces images that imitate a popular line of black-matted, motivational posters often found in office hallways. The site matches a picture with a caption and produces an image with the correct typeface. Many of the people visit the site to produce posters that are sarcastic, not inspirational. Before Pixlr.com Before Apart from simple editing tools, Pixlr.com includes a special feature that allows users to modify the colors in a photo. For example, effects named Melissa, Sophie or Tony (to make them easier to remember) mutes colours and change the focus to imitate the film and lenses commonly used in different eras. The vintage ’60s effect, for instance, amplifies the red tones and mutes the blues, effectively producing more yellows and purples, and imitating the way that films and photographic paper of that time reproduced light from the scene. Taaz.com Taaz.com allows people to test various colours of makeup. Users upload a photo of themselves and can then modify it by trying on foundation, lip gloss, blush and other cosmetics. Cosmetic companies pay fees to the company to include their products. The makeup test is licensed by Taaz to other websites like People.com and Esteelauder.com. After After After Before 7 8 Fashion Thursday, 29 December 2011 Fashion Photography By Portland Oregon By Philip Riches By Max Abadian Bloom takes you on a cruise of the top fashion photography images from around the world. Check out the stunning and sensational work of the photographers that cast some of the top models and top designer fashion. By Zhang Jingna By Chris Nicholls With its huge audience, high pay-checks and glamorous international lifestyle, fashion photography may seem like one of the world’s most sought-after professions. But for every fashion photographer who makes it through the door of a top magazine, a thousand others find their niche By TimWalker fashion advertising, art photography, celebrity portraiture or even paparazzi work. From capturing expressions to stylefashion photography brings out the best in a model as per the theme. Whether you wear haute couture, ready-to-wear or a bin bag, the effects of fashion photography can be breathtaking when you put the effort in to creating a beautiful by Demarcus Allen portfolio of fashion and celebrity style images together. It’s a wonderful way to express style and emotion. Not to mention drama for those with a little less shame and a lot By Reikko Navarro more get up and give it a go! This genre of photography is always up for creating something special and Rosemount Australian fashion show individual. By Yves Lavalette :LUK`V\YMLLKIHJRHUKZ\NNLZ[PVUZ[VISVVT'XPTXH[HYJVT;LS!-H_!