Week 13 Chapter 15 homework

Week 13: Chapter 15: Part 1: Terms
Ottoman Empire - They took over Constantinople in 1453. They mastered most of the lands of
the old caliphate as well as the Byzantine corner, expanding into southeastern Europe. It was far
more powerful politically and militarily.
Ibn-Rushd (Averroës) – He was a philosopher that espoused Greek rationalism, but his efforts
were ignored in the Middle East.
Ming Dynasty - The Ming dynasty began when a rebel leader from a peasant family overthrew
the Mongols at Beijing, the Mongol capital in 1368. The first Ming rulers wanted to secure the
borders of the Middle Kingdom. They did this by pushing the Mongols out and reestablishing
influence over neighboring governments and winning tribute payments from states in Korea,
Vietnam, and Tibet reviving the Tang dynasties’ influence. After 1400, they began mounting
state-sponsored trading expeditions to southern Asia. In 1433 the Ming isolated themselves.
Beijing - The capital of the Mongols and where the Ming wished to build a luxurious capital.
Cheng Ho - Between 1405 and 1433, they were commanded by Cheng Ho. He was in favor
with the king because he started out as a palace guard. He had an improved compass and maps
as well as huge vessels that had supplies. These ships impressed and terrified local rulers around
the Indian Ocean.
Black Death - Occurred in the 14th century. By 1400 it had reduced the Chinese population by
30 percent. In the Middle East, it caused thousands of deaths per day in the larger cities. In
Europe it had its worst impact between 1348 and 1375 by which time 30 million people died.
This was one-third of Europe’s population.
Hundred Years War (See page 234) - A major war between France and England. France won
partly due to the leadership of Joan of Arc. Showed the futility of some of the military and
organizational methods of feudalism. The kings began to rely on their own forces rather than the
forces of the nobility.
Renaissance - The Renaissance took place In Italy, which was a social and political movement
towards more secular themes rather than divine themes.
Giotto – He was a Florentine painter, who departed from medieval formalism and stiffness.
compass/astrolabe - Aided in navigation of the seas. They were used to determine latitude at
sea by reckoning from the stars.
Portugal, Castile and Aragon – After 1400 major regional monarchies were established in the
provinces of Castile and Aragon, which were united through marriage in 1469. In Spain and
Portugal, they had a vigorous military and religious agenda. They believed that government had
a mission to promote Christianity by converting or expelling Arabs and Jews and maintaining
doctrinal purity. The church provided revenue to the royal government and the government
enforced moral living. These effective governments with a sense of religious mission promoted
Western expansion.
Francesco Petrarch - Was a leading 14th century writer that took pride in his city and his age
and explored the glories of personal achievement with new confidence.
Vivaldi brothers - In 1291, the Vivaldi brothers from Genoa sailed through the Straits of
Gibraltar. They attempted to get to the Indies, but they never made it.
“Indies” - The Indies were the spice areas of south and southeast Asia.
Henry the Navigator - Henry the Navigator sponsored many trips because he wanted to make
already discovered areas economically profitable. He was motivated by scientific and
intellectual curiosity, desire to spread the name of Christ, and financial interests.
ethnocentrism - A habitual disposition to judge foreign peoples or groups by the standards and
practices of one’s own culture or ethnic group.
Polynesia – An island country that expanded to Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Its
people were war-like. After 1400 they did not have much contact with each other.
Society Islands – Tahiti, Samoa, and Fiji islands. It is the base of Polynesian culture.
Hawaii – After 1400 there was little contact with their original Polynesia. They developed tribes
and were organized into regional kingdoms. Priests were located at the top, with commoners
viewed as almost a separate people.
Maoris - They settled in New Zealand, and were successful in adapting to its colder
environment. Tribal military leaders and priest held great power.
Week 13: Chapter 15: Part 2: Questions
1. Explain why the Islamic Empire/society was in decline. Be specific.
In 1258, the Islamic caliphate was taken over by the Mongols, after a prolonged dependence on
foreign troops and advisors that caused them to grow weaker and weaker and in 1453, the
Byzantine capital, Constantinople, fell to the Turks. However, these changes marked a gradual
decline in the worldwide importance of the Islamic empires. Increasing religious piety caused
science to lose out to religion. Literature increasingly took on religious tones. Economics played
a large role as well. As the 2 controlling forces in the Middle East (the caliphate and the
Byzantine Empire) began to decline in the 1100’s, landlords began taking more and more local
power for themselves, turning the peasants into serfs, focusing on developing their estate rather
than new agricultural techniques. Tax revenues declined as did trade opportunities.
2. Describe the Chinese attempts to become involved international trade. Be sure to discuss the
role of Cheng Ho. Why does China eventually decide to isolate itself from the West?
The establishment of the Ming Dynasty did much to solidify and strengthen the Chinese dynasty,
including pushing the Mongols to the far reaches of Mongolia, reestablishing influence (and
tribute payments) and encouraging state-sponsored trading expeditions. The first fleet began with
42 ships, at it’s height China had over 3,500 vessels. Trading chinaware and copper coins for
local goods, the Chinese vessels reached India, the Middle East, and Africa. Cheng Ho
(Zhenghe) led these expeditions between 1405 and 1433. He was Muslim thus seen as a perfect
fit to deal with the Muslims they would encounter in their travels. He brought gifts and an
abundant army, brought back goods and other spectacular “prizes” such as exotic animals for the
imperial zoo. He was, however, resented by other Chinese Bureaucrats. This resentment coupled
with the massive costs of the expeditions that helped lead to the end of Chinese exploration.
China had long focused on strengthening internal affairs and with the Ming firmly in place and
local industry expanding; there was no longer a need to trade outside of China.
3. Discuss reasons for the “Rise of the West”. List the various factors Stearns examines and give
reasons for each. Again, be specific.
Famine – with a population larger than its food supply and no new agricultural methods to
combat the problem, the Europeans need to look elsewhere for food.
Medieval Vitality – Strong regional monarchies increasing military technology and church
approved capitalism helped pave the way
Imitation and International Problems – The Mongol Empire gave new access to Asian
knowledge and technology, Political openness on behalf of the Khans led to sharing technology
such as gunpowder, a Crusades built thirst for luxury goods helped propel European trade with
Asia, fear of the Ottoman Empire and relinquishment of Mediterranean ports also played a large
Secular Directions in Italian Renaissance – Humanism paved the way to seek personal glory and
encouraged ambition.
Iberian Spirit of Religious Mission – Spain and Portugal shared a belief that the government had
a mission to promote Christianity.
4. How did the Renaissance affect European thought? What effect did this have on the “Rise of
the West”? (Consult Chapter 16 also- pages 363 to 365)
The focus on Human potential (Humanism) caused many to begin to seek personal glory.
Ambition was encouraged, even rewarded. New ideas were embraced and many of the city-states
were quick to support new ventures in hopes of collecting more tax money.
5. Describe the early exploration attempts by the Europeans. What groups were involved, reasons
for these explorations, successful or not, why or why not?
Early Italian explorations had mixed results. Two brothers sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar
and were never seen again. Another expedition made it to the Canary Islands and a later group
found their way to the Azores. Until 1430, exploration was limited. Spain made to Sierra Leone,
but technology limitations prevented much else. In the 15th century, however, innovations such
as the compass and the astrolabe as well as shipbuilding improvements and increased
mapmaking skills allowed the Europeans to succeed in voyages considered unthinkable a few
years before.
6. Stearns describes the migration of the Polynesians out of the Society Islands to Hawaii, New
Zealand and Easter Island. Give or explore some reasons why this migration occurred?
No reasons are alluded to. Perhaps it was the development of better war canoes that allowed for
greater distances. In each of the societies, the new areas quickly became independent and
migration ceased in favor of a new land. There perhaps was a cultural reason to establish new
homelands . . . as each of these areas do. Granted, much of what was established is similar to
Polynesian culture, each developed in their own distinct way. Considering that each area had a
focus on tribal leaders who ruled, perhaps it is safe to assume that those venturing out had lost
favor with the tribal leaders from their homelands.