Week 13: Chapter 15: Part 1: Terms Ottoman Empire - They took over Constantinople in 1453. They mastered most of the lands of the old caliphate as well as the Byzantine corner, expanding into southeastern Europe. It was far more powerful politically and militarily. Ibn-Rushd (Averroës) – He was a philosopher that espoused Greek rationalism, but his efforts were ignored in the Middle East. Ming Dynasty - The Ming dynasty began when a rebel leader from a peasant family overthrew the Mongols at Beijing, the Mongol capital in 1368. The first Ming rulers wanted to secure the borders of the Middle Kingdom. They did this by pushing the Mongols out and reestablishing influence over neighboring governments and winning tribute payments from states in Korea, Vietnam, and Tibet reviving the Tang dynasties’ influence. After 1400, they began mounting state-sponsored trading expeditions to southern Asia. In 1433 the Ming isolated themselves. Beijing - The capital of the Mongols and where the Ming wished to build a luxurious capital. Cheng Ho - Between 1405 and 1433, they were commanded by Cheng Ho. He was in favor with the king because he started out as a palace guard. He had an improved compass and maps as well as huge vessels that had supplies. These ships impressed and terrified local rulers around the Indian Ocean. Black Death - Occurred in the 14th century. By 1400 it had reduced the Chinese population by 30 percent. In the Middle East, it caused thousands of deaths per day in the larger cities. In Europe it had its worst impact between 1348 and 1375 by which time 30 million people died. This was one-third of Europe’s population. Hundred Years War (See page 234) - A major war between France and England. France won partly due to the leadership of Joan of Arc. Showed the futility of some of the military and organizational methods of feudalism. The kings began to rely on their own forces rather than the forces of the nobility. Renaissance - The Renaissance took place In Italy, which was a social and political movement towards more secular themes rather than divine themes. Giotto – He was a Florentine painter, who departed from medieval formalism and stiffness. compass/astrolabe - Aided in navigation of the seas. They were used to determine latitude at sea by reckoning from the stars. Portugal, Castile and Aragon – After 1400 major regional monarchies were established in the provinces of Castile and Aragon, which were united through marriage in 1469. In Spain and Portugal, they had a vigorous military and religious agenda. They believed that government had a mission to promote Christianity by converting or expelling Arabs and Jews and maintaining doctrinal purity. The church provided revenue to the royal government and the government enforced moral living. These effective governments with a sense of religious mission promoted Western expansion. Francesco Petrarch - Was a leading 14th century writer that took pride in his city and his age and explored the glories of personal achievement with new confidence. Vivaldi brothers - In 1291, the Vivaldi brothers from Genoa sailed through the Straits of Gibraltar. They attempted to get to the Indies, but they never made it. “Indies” - The Indies were the spice areas of south and southeast Asia. Henry the Navigator - Henry the Navigator sponsored many trips because he wanted to make already discovered areas economically profitable. He was motivated by scientific and intellectual curiosity, desire to spread the name of Christ, and financial interests. ethnocentrism - A habitual disposition to judge foreign peoples or groups by the standards and practices of one’s own culture or ethnic group. Polynesia – An island country that expanded to Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Its people were war-like. After 1400 they did not have much contact with each other. Society Islands – Tahiti, Samoa, and Fiji islands. It is the base of Polynesian culture. Hawaii – After 1400 there was little contact with their original Polynesia. They developed tribes and were organized into regional kingdoms. Priests were located at the top, with commoners viewed as almost a separate people. Maoris - They settled in New Zealand, and were successful in adapting to its colder environment. Tribal military leaders and priest held great power. Week 13: Chapter 15: Part 2: Questions 1. Explain why the Islamic Empire/society was in decline. Be specific. In 1258, the Islamic caliphate was taken over by the Mongols, after a prolonged dependence on foreign troops and advisors that caused them to grow weaker and weaker and in 1453, the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, fell to the Turks. However, these changes marked a gradual decline in the worldwide importance of the Islamic empires. Increasing religious piety caused science to lose out to religion. Literature increasingly took on religious tones. Economics played a large role as well. As the 2 controlling forces in the Middle East (the caliphate and the Byzantine Empire) began to decline in the 1100’s, landlords began taking more and more local power for themselves, turning the peasants into serfs, focusing on developing their estate rather than new agricultural techniques. Tax revenues declined as did trade opportunities. 2. Describe the Chinese attempts to become involved international trade. Be sure to discuss the role of Cheng Ho. Why does China eventually decide to isolate itself from the West? The establishment of the Ming Dynasty did much to solidify and strengthen the Chinese dynasty, including pushing the Mongols to the far reaches of Mongolia, reestablishing influence (and tribute payments) and encouraging state-sponsored trading expeditions. The first fleet began with 42 ships, at it’s height China had over 3,500 vessels. Trading chinaware and copper coins for local goods, the Chinese vessels reached India, the Middle East, and Africa. Cheng Ho (Zhenghe) led these expeditions between 1405 and 1433. He was Muslim thus seen as a perfect fit to deal with the Muslims they would encounter in their travels. He brought gifts and an abundant army, brought back goods and other spectacular “prizes” such as exotic animals for the imperial zoo. He was, however, resented by other Chinese Bureaucrats. This resentment coupled with the massive costs of the expeditions that helped lead to the end of Chinese exploration. China had long focused on strengthening internal affairs and with the Ming firmly in place and local industry expanding; there was no longer a need to trade outside of China. 3. Discuss reasons for the “Rise of the West”. List the various factors Stearns examines and give reasons for each. Again, be specific. Famine – with a population larger than its food supply and no new agricultural methods to combat the problem, the Europeans need to look elsewhere for food. Medieval Vitality – Strong regional monarchies increasing military technology and church approved capitalism helped pave the way Imitation and International Problems – The Mongol Empire gave new access to Asian knowledge and technology, Political openness on behalf of the Khans led to sharing technology such as gunpowder, a Crusades built thirst for luxury goods helped propel European trade with Asia, fear of the Ottoman Empire and relinquishment of Mediterranean ports also played a large role Secular Directions in Italian Renaissance – Humanism paved the way to seek personal glory and encouraged ambition. Iberian Spirit of Religious Mission – Spain and Portugal shared a belief that the government had a mission to promote Christianity. 4. How did the Renaissance affect European thought? What effect did this have on the “Rise of the West”? (Consult Chapter 16 also- pages 363 to 365) The focus on Human potential (Humanism) caused many to begin to seek personal glory. Ambition was encouraged, even rewarded. New ideas were embraced and many of the city-states were quick to support new ventures in hopes of collecting more tax money. 5. Describe the early exploration attempts by the Europeans. What groups were involved, reasons for these explorations, successful or not, why or why not? Early Italian explorations had mixed results. Two brothers sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar and were never seen again. Another expedition made it to the Canary Islands and a later group found their way to the Azores. Until 1430, exploration was limited. Spain made to Sierra Leone, but technology limitations prevented much else. In the 15th century, however, innovations such as the compass and the astrolabe as well as shipbuilding improvements and increased mapmaking skills allowed the Europeans to succeed in voyages considered unthinkable a few years before. 6. Stearns describes the migration of the Polynesians out of the Society Islands to Hawaii, New Zealand and Easter Island. Give or explore some reasons why this migration occurred? No reasons are alluded to. Perhaps it was the development of better war canoes that allowed for greater distances. In each of the societies, the new areas quickly became independent and migration ceased in favor of a new land. There perhaps was a cultural reason to establish new homelands . . . as each of these areas do. Granted, much of what was established is similar to Polynesian culture, each developed in their own distinct way. Considering that each area had a focus on tribal leaders who ruled, perhaps it is safe to assume that those venturing out had lost favor with the tribal leaders from their homelands.