Chapter 22 Cross Cultural Interactions 1000

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Chapter 22 Cross Cultural
Interactions 1000 - 1500 CE
1000 - 1500 people of Eastern
Hemisphere traded, communicated &
interacted as never before
• Mongols (pax Mongolica) create
conditions for overland trade
• Improvement in maritime & other
technologies led to increased traffic on
Indian Ocean.
Exchanges on Indian Ocean
and Silk Roads included
•
•
•
•
Goods
Technologies
Religious faiths
Diseases (Different effects China &
Western Europe)
• Culture (troubadours see p. 575)
Travelers include:
• Marco Polo and other merchants
• Ibn Battuta and other Muslim scholars to
newly converted Muslim areas.
• Missionaries - Sufi, Catholic - failed among
Chinese and Mongols succeed in
Scandinavia, E. Europe, Spain.
• Diplomats to Europe from Mongols of Persia
Recovery in China: Ming
Dynasty 1368 - 1644
• After Mongols, Hongwu creates strongly
centralized state
• Reinstates Confucian system of exams
• Also use Mandarins and eunuchs
Ming economic & cultural
recovery from Mongols
• Forced peasant labor to rebuild infrastructure
• Promote production of: porcelain, silk,
laquerware, cotton textiles
• Chinese culture stressed - Yongle
Encyclopedia
Recovery in Western Europe:
State Building
• Review
• Italy, Spain HRE, France and England
Trends
• Direct taxes as new sources or revenue
• Standing armies
• Authority of central governments over
nobles
• Competition leads to small scale wars.
• States fund technology to improve
weapons and ships
The Renaissance - cultural flowering that
took place in Western Europe 14th - 16th
Century
• Looked to Greece and Rome not
medieval world
• Also linked by trade and preference to
Eastern Hemisphere
• Admired realism
• This worldly not other worldly
• Man is the measure of all things
• Vernacular
Begins in Italian City States
especially Florence
• Humanist literature
• Know people discussed on p. 582 - 584
• Linear perspective
Linear Perspective
Alberti Grid
Doge Ruler of Venice (left) Bellini’s
Portrait of Maryam (an exemplary
“Muslim” Woman”
Brunelleschi Sacrestia
Vecchia di San Lorenzo
(1419-1428)
Brunelleschi’s Dome in
Florence
Michelangelo (Pieta in Rome)
& Botticelli
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
His Sistine Chapel “Creation”
Exploration and Colonization: Recovery
from the Plague -China and W. Europe
• Early Ming emperors allow foreign
merchants to trade in Guangzhou &
Guangzhou
• Chinese silk, porcelain & manufactured
goods for gems, spices, fabrics
• Zheng He’s voyages 1405 - 1433
• Why do the Chinese pull the plug - what
did this mean for history
Zheng He - Muslim Eunuch
Admiral
Chinese and European Ships
Unlike Chinese who sailed for diplomatic,
political and military influence W. Europeans
sought profit and an expansion of Catholicism
• Portugal - Henry the Navigator. To
Ceuta, Maldives, Cape Verde, Sao
Tome.
• Bring slaves from W. Africa to Atlantic
islands for heavy labor on plantations.
This leads to Atlantic slave trade
From Europe Around Africa to
Indian Ocean
• Entrance of Portuguese into Indian
Oceans signals the beginning of
European Imperialism in Asia.
• Columbus to New World
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