Westward Expansion - Unit Assessment Study Guide Evolution of Indian trade patterns and interaction with settlers Effects of Spanish exploration and conquest in the Southwest “Right of conquest” (“Living Beside Each Other,” p.70) Arguments for and against Indian Removal (including Jackson & Frelinghuysen) Indian Removal Act Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark Treaties dealing with expansion of U.S. borders (Know what areas were added and when) Gadsden Purchase Manifest Destiny President Andrew Jackson What happened in Texas? (Who did it belong to? How did it come to be part of U.S.?) Who was president at the time of the Mexican American War? What were the causes of the war? What were the results of the war? (Texas and Mexican-American War see “The West” note sheet and PPT online) Estimated historical population of buffalo in North America Reasons why the buffalo were hunted almost to extinction Homestead Act, qualifications, effects on Native Americans, effects on the land Reasons why settlers moved west (push and pull factors, government incentives) Inventions that fostered/facilitated westward expansion Gold Rush (“The West” note sheet) (*We will cover this on Tuesday) General Allotment Act / “Dawes Act” Five Civilized Tribes and different ways “outsiders” tried to get onto Tribal Roles Amount of land (in acres) controlled by Native Americans in 1500? 1887? 1934? (use statistics from “General Allotment Act” reading, p 506). Allotment in the Oklahoma Territory, process by which settlers received former reservation lands Date at which all Native Americans were allowed to become citizens, other ways they gained citizenship According to recent estimates, what was the North American native population before 1492? In 1900? Assimilation and boarding schools Contrast Jefferson's policies toward the Indians vs. Jackson's. What accounts for this shift? Cherokee Nation v. Georgia Worcester vs. Georgia Trail of Tears Sand Creek Massacre (“Indian Problem” PPT, section on Indian Wars) Battle at Little Big Horn Battle (“Massacre”) at Wounded Knee When was the first transcontinental railroad completed? (*We will cover this on Wednesday) Railroad growth, standardization, and influence. How was it built? (Who built it and how was it funded?) John Collier and Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (From notes on Eras of Policy) “Cultural Relativism” Termination Policy Know the last 6 Eras of Federal Indian Policy, beginning in 1830s (see link in notes) Native Americans today: Percent of U.S. land that is reserved, Percent of Americans with Native American Ancestry (all or part) according to the most recent census, Percent of Native Americans that live on reservations Short Answer: Be able to discuss all of the major land acquisitions. This will be covered in class, and there is a link called “Territorial Acquisitions PPT” with a review of this material on the main American Studies page. Items to consider: Who ceded the land, why did the U.S. want it, was it won in a war or was it purchased (or both), if it was purchased then why was someone willing to sell it, and who were the major characters involved in each acquisition? *The more specifics that you include, the easier it will be for me to award you points for each response.