4.1 The Indus and Ganges River Valleys

4.1 The Indus and Ganges River Valleys
Pages 106-111
Directions: Identify the following terms/people. Use your question words as a guide.
Please answer the reading checks in complete sentences.
India’s Geographic Setting
How did geography limited India’s
contact with the rest of the world?
A large landmass that juts out from a continent
NW: Hindu Kush Mts.
NE: Himalaya Mts.
W,S,E: water
Arabian Sea
Indian Ocean
Bay of Bengal
Strong, seasonal winds that sometimes bring heavy rain and
How do the monsoons affect the
people living in India?
What role do the great rivers play in
India’s geography?
How do winter monsoons differ
from summer monsoons?
Indus and Ganges Rivers begin in mountains, cutting a path
through them
Fed by melting snow and by rain
Hydrate the river valleys, enabling farming
Winter Monsoons
Blow from NE
Dry air
Summer Monsoons
JuneBlow from SW
Wet and stormy
Life in the Indus River Valley
Well-planned city
c. 2500-1500 B.C.
Located in present day
Along bank of Indus R.
Rich soil meant food and settlements
Elevated to avoid flooding
Canals-When river was high, canals outside city caught
Drainage system
- clay pipes under brick streets
- waste carried away from homes and public buildings
City’s highest point
A lookout enclosed by brick walls
Protected city’s most important buildings, the storehouse for
grain and the bath house
When did the Indus valley
civilization began to decline? What
are some theories about this decline?
Around 2000 B.C. Indus valley farmers began to abandon
their land. What are some theories about the decline of this
ancient city?
- Climate changed from fertile to desert
- Earthquakes, floods, or droughts led to
Newcomers repopulated 2000-1500 B.C.
Aryans- means “noble” or “highborn”
Migrated, or moved, from central Asia
Nomadic herders
Horse-drawn chariots overwhelmed enemies
Intermarried with locals
To move from one place to another.
How did Aryan culture spread?
Aryan culture spread through settlement and intermarriage
The locals and newcomers mixed traditions
Culture spread from Indus to Ganges River Valley
Used iron tools to clear rainforests and build farms, villages,
and cities
Vedas means knowledge
Early religious books
Gives information on everyday life in Ancient India
How was Aryan society organized?
Identify caste and the caste system.
Society organized around three social classes
- Brahman, priests
- Warriors and nobles
- Artisans and merchants
(-farmer, laborers, servants)
By 500 B.C, there was a strict division on classes, later termed
Born, marry, and die in same caste
Each main caste divides into 100’s
(by occupation)