1 - AP Psychology

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1. Awareness of yourself and the environment.
Consciousness
Perception
2. Natural life cycles that help to guide our levels of awareness and our behaviors.
Biological Rhythms
Lucidity
3. A biological clock that is synchronized with the 24-hour cycle of day and night.
Restorative Theory
Circadian Rhythm
4. Quiet, typically dreamless sleep in which rapid eye movements are absent.
NREM Sleep
REM Sleep
5. Experiments in which all environmental time cues are removed found that the body
creates its own sleep-wake cycle that is roughly one-hour off of normal sleep and wake
times – working on a 25 hour day schedule.
Circadian Rhythm
Free Running Circadian Rhythm
6. Sleep promotes physiological processes that restore and rejuvenate the body and the
mind.
Restorative Theory
Adaptive Theory
7. Type of sleep during which rapid eye movements and dreaming occur and voluntary
muscle activity is suppressed (paradoxical sleep).
NREM Sleep
REM Sleep
8. When you are awake and alert, brain waves known as ____ are generated in the brain.
Alpha
Beta
9. You may hear a loud crash, hear someone call your name, feel a sensation of floating,
smell something burning, see a variety of colors during pre-sleep.
Myoclonic Jerks
Hypnagogic Hallucinations
10. Involuntary muscle spasms of pre-sleep.
Myoclonic Jerks
Hypnagogic Hallucinations
11. Quick bursts of brain activity that last for a second or two occur during stage _____
of sleep.
Stage 2
Stage 3
12. Once the large, slow delta waves of sleep are more than 50% of the brain wave
pattern, a sleeper has entered _____ sleep.
REM
Stage 4
13. The average sleep cycle, from stage 1 through the first REM cycle typically lasts for
approx. _______ minutes.
60
90
14. The less time we spend in REM sleep one night, the longer amount of time we will
spend in REM sleep the next night.
REM Recovery Sleep
REM Rebound Sleep
15. As a sleeper cycles throughout the night, the time devoted to NREM sleep typically
______ each cycle while REM sleep typically _______.
Increases/Decreases
Decreases/Increases
16. A condition in which a person regularly experiences an inability to fall asleep, to stay
asleep, or to feel adequately rested by sleep.
Apnea
Insomnia
17. A sleep disorder in which the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep.
Apnea
Narcolepsy
18. A sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into
sleep throughout the day.
Narcolepsy
Insomnia
19. The hormone ______ is released to help enable the start of the sleep cycle.
Melatonin
Melanin
20. Dreams are the result of random neural impulses put into a story format by the cortex
in order to try and make sense of it.
Information Processing Theory
Activation Synthesis Model
21. Dreams are a purposeful way for the brain to try to organize and interpret the
overwhelming amount of stimulation that it receives during the day.
Information Processing Theory
Activation Synthesis Model
22. The _____ content of a dream is the literal storyline and events that occurred.
Latent
Manifest
23. The _____ content of a dream is the interpretation of the unconscious drives, wishes,
and desires that created the dream.
Latent
Manifest
24. When a dreamer becomes consciously aware of their dream and can control it.
Arousal Theory
Lucidity
25. The ongoing abuse of drugs that leads to compulsive use of the substance.
Tolerance
Addiction
26. Higher doses of a drug are required to produce the original effects.
Substance Abuse
Tolerance
27. The unpleasant physical or psychological effects following discontinued used of a
substance.
Withdrawal
Dependence
28. Withdrawal symptoms are often the opposite of the drug’s action.
Opponent-Process Syndrome
Drug Rebound Effect
29. Chemicals that slow down behavior or cognitive processes and inhibit central
nervous system activity.
Hallucinogens
Depressants
30. Drugs that energize the nervous system and produce feelings of optimism and
boundless energy.
Stimulants
Hallucinogens
31. Marijuana is classified as a ____________.
Depressant
Hallucinogen
32. A social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions,
feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
Recall
Hypnotism
33. A command, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no
longer hypnotized.
Post-Hypnotic Suggestion
Post-Hypnotic Amnesia
34. Supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis.
Post-Hypnotic Suggestion
Post-Hypnotic Amnesia
35. A relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience.
Learning
Maturation
36. Learning to associate two stimuli and anticipate events.
Operant Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
37. We learn to associate a response and its consequence, and we repeat acts followed by
rewards, and avoid acts followed by punishment.
Operant Conditioning
Vicarious Learning
38. We learn from other’s experiences and examples.
Classical Conditioning
Observational Learning
39. A stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response.
Unconditioned Stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
40. An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with and unconditioned
stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
Unconditioned Stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
41. The unlearned, naturally occurring response to the original, natural stimulus.
Unconditioned Response
Conditioned Response
42. The learned response to a previously neutral and now learned stimulus.
Unconditioned Response
Conditioned Response
43. The phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the
neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response.
Acquisition
Generalization
44. The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the
conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
Discrimination
Generalization
45. The ideal time between presenting the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned
stimulus is about _____ works best.
5 seconds
½ seconds
46. Conditioning is more likely to occur if the conditioned stimulus is presented _____
the unconditioned stimulus.
Before
After
47. The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli
that do not signal an unconditioned response.
Discrimination
Generalization
48. The diminishing of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus no
longer follows a conditioned stimulus.
Extinction
Ebinghaus’ Forgetting Curve
49. The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response.
Insight
Spontaneous Recovery
50. States that rewarded behavior is likely to recur.
Law of Effect
Just World Belief
51. Reinforcers are successively given only as the subject gets closer to the ultimate
behavior goal.
Shaping
Modeling
52. Strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a
response.
Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
53. Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus.
Negative Reinforcement
Punishment
54. A stimulus that is learned, and/or is associated with a primary reinforcer.
Secondary Reinforcer
Conditioned Stimulus
55. Reinforcing the desired response immediately, every time it occurs. Learning occurs
quickly, but as soon as reinforcement ends, extinction occurs very quickly also.
Continuous Reinforcement
Delayed Reinforcement
56. A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces only after a specified number of
responses.
Fixed Interval
Fixed Ratio
57. A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number
of responses.
Variable Ratio
Variable Interval
58. A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has
elapsed.
Fixed Interval
Fixed Ratio
59. A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable times.
Variable Ratio
Variable Interval
60. An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
Negative Reinforcement
Punishment
61. Originally created the foundations of classical conditioning through his testing of
dog’s and their responses to conditioned stimulus.
Skinner
Pavlov
62. The Bobo Doll Experiment highlighted the effects of ______ on behaviors.
Rewards and Punishments
Observational Learning
63. Vicariously learned behaviors are those behaviors that are learned through _____.
Rewards and Punishments
Observational Learning
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