Parameter label: Sentence structure of possessor predication Values: PsrPrd=Hab PsrPrd=Adn PsrPrdWOHab PsrPrdWOAdn PsrPrdKop PsrPrdKopPoss PsrPrdKopPossHab PsrPrdKopHab PsrPrdKopSpec PsrPrdV +PsdSpec Reference: Commentary Possessor predication (PsrPrd) refers to possessive constructions in which the possessed is declared to belong to the possessor (for example, the car is Mary’s and the house is mine). The required components of this constructions are the possessed (also known as possessee), which must appear as the topic (and subject) of the sentence, the possessivizing grammatical strategy, and the possessor, which must appear in the predicate as a comment on the topic.1 (Possessor predicative construction should not be confused with predicative possessive or habitive constructions in which the possessor, rather than the possessed, is the topic.2) To determine the parameter value of a language, example declarative sentences in the indicative mood and present tense should be examined. Both the possessor and the possessed should be expressed as a noun, rather than a pronoun. The given possessive predicative structure is determined based on the grammatical form in which the predicate (grammatical strategy + possessor) appears, relating it, in some cases, to the form used in habitive or adnominal3 possessive constructions. Types: PsrPrd=Hab: There is no grammatical distinction between possessor predication and habitive constructions.4 PsrPrd=Adn: Possessor predication displays the same structure as that of adnominal possessive constructions. Semantically, this might appear as Something is somebody’s. Semantically, this might appear as Someone has something. 3 Semantically, this might appear as Someone’s something. 4 A language displaying this value may still feature a non-grammatical distinction, such as stress or tone. 1 2 PsrPrdWOHab: With the exception of a difference in word order, possessor predication displays the same components and forms as those of habitive constructions. PsrPrdWOAdn: With the exception of a difference in word order, possessor predication displays the same components and forms as those of adnominal possessive constructions. PsrPrdKop: The predicate is copular5, and the possessor appears in base form. PsrPrdKopPoss: The predicate is copular, and the possessor appears in the same form as the adnominative, which is distinct from the habitive form. PsrPrdKopPossHab: The predicate is copular, and the possessor appears in the same form as the habitive form, which is not distinct from the adnominative form.6 PsrPrdKopHab: The predicate is copular, and the possessor appears in the same form as the habitive form, which is distinct from the adnominative form. PsrPrdKopSpec: The predicate is copular; the possessor is marked by the use of a special form.7 PsrPrdV: The predicate is a lexical verb; the possessor appears in the form required by the verb.8 +PsdSpec: The possessed noun appears in a special form specific to possession.9 When a language displays more than one strategy, multiple values can be listed. If one strategy is dominant, a slash (/) can separate the two values, with the dominant value appearing first; if neither is dominant, they are listed with an ampersand (&) separating the two. The +PsdSpec value can only appear alongside another value. The use of parentheses indicates that use of the strategy is not obligatory. Keywords: sentence structure, possession, predication. 5 The copula is a verb whose sole function is link the subject to a predicate. When in doubt, a copula can be identified by considering its forms in non-present tenses and non-indicative moods. If a non-null predicative morpheme does not appear, the language is not considered to fall into this type. 6 This value only applies to languages in which the possessor shows the same morphological form in both adnominative and habitive constructions. Consider the form of valakinek (somebody-DAT) in the Hungarian adnominative valakinek a valamije (somebody-DAT ART something-PX3SG) ‘someone’s something’ and the habitive valakinek van valamije (somebody-DAT be.3SG something-PX3SG) ‘someone has something.’ 7 A special form may be a case distinct from both the adnominative and the habitive forms, used obligatorily. Examples include the lative, dative, or ablative. Alternatively, the special form may involve the obligatory use of an adposition, or the obligatory addition of a special morpheme, such as -é in Hungarian. 8 Depending on the language, the form required by the verb may be an inflected form showing case marking or the base form. It may appear with an adposition or without. 9 This parameter can only occur in conjunction with another. The possessive-specific form may be, for example, the obligatory use of a possessive marker on the possessed.