2409.17_2 - USDA Forest Service

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2409.17,2
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FOREST SERVICE HANDBOOK
JUNEAU, ALASKA
FSH 2409.17 - SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES HANDBOOK
Region 10 Supplement No. 2409.17-99-3
Effective December 30, 1999
POSTING NOTICE. Supplements are numbered consecutively by title and
calendar year. Post by document name. Remove entire document and replace with
this supplement. Retain this transmittal as the first page of this document. The
last supplement to this title was R-10 Supplement No. 2409.17-99-2, chapter 8.
This supplement supersedes R-10 Supplement No. 2409.17-99-1 to chapter 2.
Document Name
Superseded New
(Number of Pages)
2409.17,2
6
9
Digest:
2.1 - Specifies that the seed cut in a shelterwood or seed-tree cutting is a
reforestation treatment for prescriptions involving natural regeneration without
site preparation.
2.3 - Establishes the Petersburg Ranger District, Tongass National Forest as the
manager of the Region's seedling program and maintaining the Region's seed cache.
2.4 - Adds Pacific silver fir as an acceptable tree species that can be used when
determining if a stand is adequately stocked. Sets sampling standards for
determining the number of sample plots needed. Establishes sampling procedures
to follow when sampling "groups" harvested under group selection.
2.5 - Adds this section. Establishes procedures to follow and sampling standards for
plantation survival transects. Establishes sampling procedures to follow when
sampling "groups" harvested under group selection.
/s/ Jacqueline Myers for
RICK D. CABLES
Regional Forester
R-10 SUPPLEMENT 2409.17-99-3
EFFECTIVE 12/30/1999
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TITLE 2409.17 - SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES HANDBOOK
REGION 10 SUPPLEMENT NO. 2409.17-99-3
EFFECTIVE 12/30/99
CHAPTER 2 -- REFORESTATION
Contents
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.31
2.32
2.4
2.5
2.51
2.52
2.52a
2.52b
Reforestation Prescriptions
Natural Regeneration
Artificial Regeneration
Seeding
Planting
Third Year Stocking Guidelines and Certification Standards
Plantation Survival Examination
Recording
Planting or Seeding Examination
First Growing Season
Third Growing Season
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TITLE 2409.17 - SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES HANDBOOK
REGION 10 SUPPLEMENT NO. 2409.17-99-3
EFFECTIVE 12/30/99
2.1 - Reforestation Prescriptions. Revegetation of the site begins immediately after
harvest. The silvicultural prescription must indicate the method, timing, species
composition, and minimal acceptable size and stocking levels necessary to achieve
the desired regeneration. For purposes of regeneration, the seed cut in a
shelterwood or seed-tree cutting method is considered a reforestation treatment for
prescriptions involving natural regeneration without site preparation. The
prescription must take into account all environmental factors, resource concerns,
and the objectives of management in developing the preferred treatments. Artificial
regeneration is required on areas that do not regenerate naturally.
Past experience on the Tongass National Forest has shown that due to prolific
natural regeneration, almost 95 percent of areas receiving final removal harvest
regenerate naturally. Conditions for natural regeneration are not as favorable on
the Chugach Natural Forest, where historically most regeneration treatments have
been artificial.
2.2 - Natural Regeneration. Natural regeneration should be used to restock
harvested lands on most areas of Region 10 except where conditions require
artificial regeneration. Due to prolific natural regeneration and the high
probability of success of natural regeneration from past experience, stocking
surveys will be done the third growing season after final harvest to ensure adequate
stocking on areas designated for natural regeneration. If the third year survey
indicates natural regeneration is unlikely to be adequate to restock the stand,
artificial regeneration shall be prescribed. The artificial regeneration should be
completed as soon as possible, and practical, after the third year survey.
2.3 - Artificial Regeneration. Artificial regeneration should be considered in all
prescriptions and prescribed where conditions indicate that harvested areas may
not be adequately stocked with natural regeneration of the desired species within 5
years after final harvest.
The Petersburg Ranger District, Tongass National Forest, is responsible for
maintaining the Region's seed cache and managing the Region's seedling program.
2.31 - Seeding. Normally, direct seeding for reforestation of deforested lands will
not be scheduled in the Alaska Region. However, if analysis shows that a
correlation exists between seed crop failure at time of harvest, and subsequent
unsatisfactory stocking, direct seeding may be used.
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To qualify for seeding, the following criteria must be met:
1. The area must have a good seed bed.
2. The seed bed will be lost if not seeded currently.
3. There is little or no natural seed source adjacent to the area at harvest time.
4. The area cannot be planted within 3 years or an economic analysis indicates
that direct seeding will be more economical. This economic analysis must take into
account the anticipated survival rate of seeding compared to the anticipated
survival rate of planting along with anticipated follow-up treatments.
Stocking surveys on seeded areas will be done the third growing season after final
harvest to ensure adequate stocking. If the third year survey indicates that it is
highly unlikely the site will be restocked within 5 years of final harvest, planting
shall be prescribed.
2.32 - Planting. Generally, when planting is prescribed, it should be done as soon
as possible, and practical, following final removal harvest. The density of planting
should be such to ensure that seedlings will be well spaced and evenly distributed.
All known mortality factors and future thinnings should be considered in
determining planting densities to ensure that minimum stocking levels are
maintained throughout the life of the stand.
Survival examinations will be completed on planted acres at the end of the first and
third growing season. In areas where winter mortality is common, the first and
third year exams should be taken after the first and third winter seasons. In
addition to the survival exams, stocking surveys will be done at the end of the third
growing season. If the results of the third year exam and survey indicate it is
unlikely that the site will be restocked within 5 years of final harvest, additional
reforestation activities shall be done to adequately restock the site.
Unpublished research and field observations indicate there are specific site
conditions and opportunities which may indicate a need for artificial regeneration.
Some situations to be particularly aware of are as follows:
1. Alluvial Sites
a. Valley bottoms in flood plains.
b. Alluvial fans on footslopes or toeslopes often associated with seeping,
moving water.
c. Mainland river bottom lands, on alluvial terraces.
2. Cutover, open canopy, or sparsely-stocked sites with an established ground
cover of dense vegetation such as salmonberry, devils club, or grass.
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3. Sites lacking a satisfactory seed source within approximately 660 feet from
the center of the cutting unit. Examples are:
a. High elevations where a seed source is sparse or was destroyed.
b. Sites adjacent to meadows, muskegs, and/or lakes.
c. Sites adjacent to immature stands not yet producing adequate seed.
4. Sites with lower productivity which presently have a plurality of cedar and
there is a desire to retain a cedar component in the stand.
5. Stand compositions where there is a need for change, such as: stands
planned for harvest or already harvested where the adjacent seed source contains a
high incidence of fluted hemlock.
6. Stands needing reforestation for other considerations such as:
a. Visually-sensitive areas in which immediate regeneration through
artificial reforestation would lessen the visual impact.
b. Using genetically improved stock to increase the genetic makeup of the
treated stand.
2.4 - Third Year Stocking Guidelines and Certification Standards. Stands receiving
final removal harvest shall be adequately restocked with trees within 5 years of
such harvest. A certified silviculturist shall certify that a stand meets minimum
stocking standards. The silvicultural prescription (approved by a certified
silviculturist) should contain the minimum number, size, species composition, and
distribution of regeneration to consider the stand adequately restocked. This can
vary from stand to stand and is based upon management objectives and site
conditions. Unless otherwise specified in the silvicultural prescription, the
following stocking standards shall apply to all site indexes and productivity classes.
1. Minimum Number of Regeneration. Three hundred trees per acre. For
areas regenerated artificially, this number is both planted (or seeded) and natural
regeneration that meet the height requirements.
2. Minimum Size (height) of Regeneration.
a. Four (4) inches for areas regenerated naturally or seeded.
b. Four (4) to 14 inches for areas planted.
3. Species composition. Acceptable species are: white spruce, Lutz spruce,
Sitka spruce, western hemlock, mountain hemlock, Pacific silver fir, Alaska yellowcedar, and/or western redcedar. Any combination of these species is acceptable.
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4. Distribution. (Percent of 1/300th acre plots with at least one acceptable tree
in it):
a. Sixty (60) percent for areas regenerated naturally.
b. Eighty (80) percent for areas regenerated artificially (planted or seeded).
In addition, planted areas must have at least 85 percent survival based
upon survival transects. For example: There is 85 percent survival on
survival transects and 50 percent survival based upon plots. This indicates
the area needs replanting or be closely monitored if it is thought that
natural regeneration will be adequate to restock the site within the next
two years.
A stand that meets these minimum stocking standards can be certified as restocked
at any time during the 5-year period.
Unless otherwise specified in the silvicultural prescription, 1/300th acre circular
plots shall be used to determine the number and distribution of regeneration. The
number of plots to sample per unit is the lesser of:
1. One plot per acre, or
2. The number of plots needed to estimate the number of acceptable trees per
acre within plus/minus 15 percent (at one standard deviation).
In either case, above, a minimum of five plots will be taken per unit. In the case of
surveying "groups" created by group selection, all groups harvested within the same
harvest unit can be combined in determining the size of the area to be sampled.
Plots shall be located such that a representative sample of the entire unit will be
taken. More intensive sampling can be done on specific problem units to ensure the
area is adequately stocked
2.5 - Plantation Survival Examination. Plantation survival check surveys are
necessary to:
1. Determine the effects of planting or seeding by:
a. Location
b. Method and time of site preparation
c. Time of planting or seeding
d. Method of planting or seeding
e. Size of planting stock
f. Type or size of container
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2. Determine the stocking level and condition of individual stands by:
a. Location
b. Composition
Survival surveys may be made from a series of random plots or from fixed-check
installations, usually stocked trees. The fixed-check installation is best for objective
number 1, above. The random plot method is best for objective number 2, above.
2.5.1 - Recording. Each staked row used for determining survival of planted trees
should be witnessed with a post or some other landmark and marked as follows:
1. Species
2. Age class of seedlings or containerized stock
3. Year planted
4. Staked row number
5. Azimuth
6. Number of stakes in row
7. Compartment and stand
This information may be recorded on a 4-inch piece of heavy aluminum foil or some
other appropriate medium, embossed with a ballpoint pen or some other marking
device, and stapled to the post or witness landmark.
Each sample tree should be marked with standard survey stakes placed one-foot
from the seedling. Dipping the stake end in bright paint improves visibility.
More permanent markers are required if observations are to continue beyond the
standard three years. Metal or treated wood posts should then be used for
witnessing and individual trees identified with pieces of fiberglass rod,
reinforcement rod, or conduit tubing.
2.52 - Planting or Seeding Examination. Survival check surveys on planting or
seeding will be made one and three years following treatment.
2.52a - First Growing Season. Survival check surveys after the first growing season
will be made on trees randomly selected for study immediately after planting. They
will be staked and marked as described previously and a simple map prepared to
assist in relocation. The rows of staked trees should sample the following variables:
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1. Aspect (north, south, east, and west)
2. Position on slope (upper 1/3, midslope, lower 1/3, draw bottom)
3. Site treatment (none, plowed, stripped, other)
4. Planting technique (bar, dibble, shovel, other)
5. Individual planters (cross crew direction)
6. Species
A minimum of 25 trees will be used per sample. Sufficient staked trees will be used
to provide survival information to a sampling error of plus/minus 10 percent at the
95 percent confidence level for each major seedling species planted on each Ranger
District. However, no less than 50 trees will be sampled on plantations 10 acres or
less in size and no less than 100 trees will be sampled on plantations that are larger
than 10 acres in size. In the case of planting "groups" created by group selection, all
groups planted within the same harvest unit can be combined in determining
plantation size. More intensive sampling can be done for specific problem units or
mortality cause determination.
Survival percentages will be computed, and an estimate based on these data made
of the ultimate stocking which may be expected from the planting. This evaluation
provides an index of the performance of the planting stock and the effectiveness of
site preparation and planting procedures. Subsequent programs can be
strengthened on the basis of this information.
Survival percent data will be stored in the Region's stand level database. Other
data, including survival percentages, will be stored in the appropriate stand and
compartment records. The third season examination will be scheduled at this time.
2.52b - Third Growing Season. The same staked trees that were examined at the
end of the first growing season will be examined at the end of the third growing
season. The percent survival will be computed and compared with that experienced
the first season and with third season survival in similar situations. Survival
percent data will be stored in the Region's stand level database. Other data,
including survival percentages, will be stored in the appropriate stand and
compartment records.
Natural regeneration which has become established will be evaluated, as
appropriate. The combined stocking of planted (or seeded) and naturally
regenerated trees, as determined by plots, along with survival percentages, will
provide the basis for scheduling future actions. Three basic situations, each
requiring a different response, may be found:
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1. "Certify" if the area is satisfactorily stocked.
2. "Fail" if the area is not satisfactorily stocked or satisfactory stocking is not
anticipated within 1-2 growing seasons, based upon an evaluation by a
silviculturist. Promptly report as a reforestation need arising from reforestation
failure and schedule retreatment.
3. "Reevaluate" if the area is not satisfactorily stocked and based upon an
evaluation by a silviculturist, satisfactory stocking will be achieved within 1-2
growing seasons. Reevaluate the area by the end of the following growing season.
Upon reevaluation: certify the area is adequately stocked, declare a failure if it isn't
adequately stocked and if it isn't anticipated it will be adequately stocked by the
end of the next growing season; or schedule for reevaluation at the end of the next
growing season if it is anticipated the area will be adequately stocked by that time.
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