2409_17_9 - USDA Forest Service

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2409.17,9
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FOREST SERVICE HANDBOOK
PORTLAND, OREGON
TITLE 2409.17 - SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES HANDBOOK
R-6 Supplement No. 2409.17-93-2
Effective December 17, 1993
POSTING NOTICE. Supplements are numbered consecutively by title and
calendar year. Post by document name. Remove entire document, if one exists, and
replace with this supplement. The last R-6 Supplement to this handbook was
2409.17-93-1 (2409.17,8).
Document Name
2409.17,9
Digest:
Provides Region 6 stocking guide information.
JOHN E. LOWE
Regional Forester
Superseded New
(Number of Sheets)
3
R-6 SUPPLEMENT 2409.17-93-2
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FSH 2409.17 - SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES HANDBOOK
R-6 SUPPLEMENT 2409.17-93-2
EFFECTIVE 12/17/93
CHAPTER 9 - TIMBER STOCKING GUIDES AND GROWTH PREDICTIONS
9.06 - Theory and Concepts. Use stocking level guides to determine stand density
relative to a reference level. Compare this relative stand density to predetermined
stocking levels displayed in the guide. Identify need for stocking control, and
options for timing and target residual density.
For concepts and techniques used in managing stand density, refer to: Ernst, R.L.
and W.H. Knapp. 1985. Forest stand density and stocking: concepts, terms, and
the use of stocking guides. USDA Forest Serv., Wash., DC. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-44.
8 p.
Recognize the underlying assumptions and limitations of the stocking guide when
prescribing for stand density. The applicability of a particular guide to a specific
stand depends on assumptions made in guide development regarding:
1. Species composition. Stocking level guides are most often developed for
single-species stands; less often for a specific, mixed-forest type. Where greater
species diversity is favored in management objectives, temper recommended
stocking levels with an evaluation of growth and density relationships among the
species present.
2. Stand structure. Stocking level guides are most often developed for stands
with an even-aged structure; less often for multi-storied stands. Where greater
structural diversity is favored by management objectives, temper recommended
stocking levels with evaluation of growth and density relationships of the structural
components present.
3.
Recommended stocking levels.
The upper and lower bounds of
recommended stocking levels in most published guides are based on a single
objective: maximize wood fiber production. Where stand management objectives
emphasize other forest resources, adjust recommended stocking levels to reflect
stand densities and structures that benefit those resources.
9.1 - Stocking Guide Development.
9.11 - Existing Regional Stocking Guides. Use the stocking guides from these
publications that best fit the composition of the stand for which management is
being prescribed:
1. Westside species.
Drew, J.T. and J.W. Flewelling. 1979. Stand density management: an alternative
approach and its application to Douglas-fir plantations. Forest Science 25(3): 518532.
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Long, J.N., J.B. McCarter, and S.B. Jack. 1988. A modified density management
diagram for coast Douglas-fir. West. J. Appl. Forestry 3(3): 88-89.
Hibbs, D.E. 1987. The self-thinning rule and red alder management.
Ecology and Management 18(1987): 273-281.
Forest
Hibbs, D.E. and G.C. Carlton. 1989. A comparison of diameter- and volume-based
stocking guides for red alder. West. J. Appl. Forestry 4(4): 113-115.
Curtis, R.O. 1982. A simple index of stand density for Douglas-fir.
Paine, D.P. and D.W. Hann.
1982.
Maximum-crown width equations for
southwestern Oregon tree species. Oregon State Univ., School of Forestry, Res.
Pap. 46.
2. Eastside Species.
Cochran, P.H. 1991. Stocking levels and underlying assumptions for uneven-aged
ponderosa pine stands. USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, Res. Note.
PNW-RN-509. 10 p.
Cochran, P.H. 1985. Site index, height growth, normal yields, and stocking levels
for larch in Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service, PNW Forest & Range
Experiment Station, Res. Note. PNW-424. 24 p.
Seidel, K.W. and P.H. Cochran. 1981. Silviculture of mixed conifer forests in
eastern Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service PNW Forest and Range
Exp. Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-121, 70 p. (page 49).
Barrett, James W. 1979. Silviculture of ponderosa pine in the Pacific Northwest:
the state of our knowledge. USDA Forest Service, PNW Forest and Range Exp.
Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-97. 106 p. (see figs. 21 and 22).
Peterson, William C. and David E. Hibbs. 1989. Adjusting stand density guides for
sites with low stocking potential. West. J. Appl. Forestry 4(2): 62-65.
Flewelling, J.W. and J.T. Drew. 1985. A stand management diagram for lodgepole
pine. pp. 239-244 in Lodgepole pine: the species and its management. Symposium
proceedings. David M. Baumgartner et al., eds. Wash. State Univ. 1985.
McCarter, J.B. and J.N. Long. 1986. A lodgepole pine density management
diagram. West. J. Appl. Forestry 1(1):6-11. 1986.
Edminster, Carleton B. 1988. Stand density and stocking in even-aged pine stands.
pp. 253-260 in Ponderosa pine--the species and its management. Symposium proc.
David M. Baumgartner and James E. Lotan, eds. Wash. State University, Pullman,
WA.
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Smith, F.W. and J.N. Long. 1987. Elk hiding and thermal cover guidelines in the
context of lodgepole pine stand density. West. J. Appl. Forestry 2(1):6-10. 1987.
Page, Douglas H. 1981. The use of Reineke's stand-density index for uneven-aged
timber management.
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