This study guide indicates main topics in this unit. Be sure to study homework questions (there's lots of overlap with these questions) and to review class notes, as well as data and notes from AP
Chap. 17 - Evidence of Evolution
1. Be able to state the main points of Darwin's theory of natural selection.
2. What are fossils? Be able to explain how fossils form and why the fossil record is sometimes spotty.
3. Be able to name the dominant life forms in the three eons and the three eras (see Figure
4. What is plate tectonics? How did changes in landforms, oceans, and the atmosphere influence the evolution of life on our planet?
5. How does evidence from comparative morphology support the theory of natural selection?
What is the difference between morphological divergence (homologous structures) and morphological convergence (analogous structures)?
6. How can embryology help to demonstrate relationships between organisms? How can mutations in master genes affect the course of evolution?
7. How can evidence from comparative biochemistry help to clarify relationships and evolutionary patterns? Be able to explain protein comparisons, nucleic acid hybridization, and molecular clocks.
Chap. 18 - Microevolutionary Processes
1. What is microevolution?
2. What is a gene pool? How is it related to evolution?
3. Be able to explain directional, stabilizing, and disruptive selection. What is the effect of each on a population?
4. What are the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? If this is an ideal population, why is it helpful to real-life biologists? There will be a section of Hardy-Weinberg problems on your test. The best way to review this material is to use your AP Lab Book.
5. Know the meanings of sexual selection, balanced polymorphism, and heterozygote advantage.
6. What is the difference between genetic drift and gene flow?
7. What is an adaptation?
Chap. 19 - Evolutionary Patterns, Rates, Trends
1. What is a species?
2. What is speciation? How is it connected to reproductive isolating mechanisms? Review the reproductive isolation mechanisms described on 19.1. Don't memorize the list, but be able to recognize examples of each.
3. Explain allopatric speciation.
4. Review sympatric speciation, and be able to explain how speciation can occur even without a physical barrier.
4. What is the difference between cladogenesis and anagenesis?
5. What is the difference between the gradual and punctuation models of speciation?
6. What is adaptive radiation?
7. How can mass extinctions promote evolutionary change among the survivors?
8. What is the purpose of a classification system? You should be able to define the main taxa in the Three Domain and Six Kingdom classifications.
9. What is a cladogram?