Skills Worksheet

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General Biology
081307
Name ______________________________
Instr _________________Block ________
Chapters 7 – 9 Review
In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or
best answers each question.
A ___
1.The surface area-to-volume ratio of a small cell is
A. greater than that of a larger cell.
B. less than that of a larger cell.
C. equal to that of a larger cell.
D. not affected by the cell’s size.
D ___
2. In prokaryotic cells, the genetic material is found in
A. the DNA and RNA.
B. the nucleolus.
C. the nucleus.
D. a single loop.
C
3. In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria
A. transport materials.
B. make proteins.
C. produce ATP
D. control cell division.
C ___
4. Which cell structures do all bacteria and plants have in common?
A. chloroplasts
B. pili
C. a cell wall
D. Both (a) and (c)
A ___
5. Which of these are always unicellular?
A. prokaryotes
B. eukaryotes
C. protists
D. flagella
B_____
6. Most animals and plants have groups of cells with a similar structure and function that are
organized into
A. organ systems.
B. tissues.
C. nerves and muscles.
D. All of the above
C ___
7. Which part of the cell membrane identifies the cell type?
A. phospholipid bilayer
B. transport proteins
C. receptor proteins
D. cell-surface markers
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
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D ___
8.The cell in the figure is a
A. prokaryotic cell.
B. eukaryotic cell.
C. plant cell.
D. Both (b) and (c)
D ___
9. The structure labeled A
A. supports the cell.
B. protects the cell.
C. surrounds the cell membrane.
D. All of the above
A ___
10. Which of these statements is true about the cell membrane?
A. The outer surfaces are polar, while the interior is nonpolar.
B. The outer surfaces are nonpolar, while the interior is polar.
C. Polar and nonpolar regions are randomly arranged throughout the membrane.
D. A layer of water within the membrane causes the membrane to form as a lipid bilayer.
A ___
11. By controlling what enters and leave a cell, the cell membrane
A. aids in maintaining homeostasis within the cell.
B. aids in maintaining homeostasis outside of the cell.
C. aids in maintaining osmosis within the cell.
D. aids in maintaining osmosis outside of the cell.
A ___
12. Which kind of molecules can pass unaided through the cell membrane?
A. small, polar molecules
B. small, nonpolar molecules
C. polar molecules of a specific shape
D. nonpolar molecules of a specific shape
C ___
13. Diffusion is the movement of a substance
A. only in liquids.
B. through only a lipid bilayer.
C. down its concentration gradient.
D. against its concentration gradient.
D ___
14. When particles move out of a cell through facilitated diffusion, the cell
A. gains energy.
B. uses energy.
C. first gains and then uses energy.
D. does not experience any change related to energy.
B ___
15. The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called
A. endocytosis.
B. osmosis.
C. exocytosis.
D. isotonic movement.
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
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Cell Structure
C ___
16. Molecules that are too large to be moved through a cell membrane can be transported into
the cell by
A. osmosis.
B. exocytosis.
C. endocytosis.
D. membrane proteins.
B ___
17. I
. f the concentration of a sugar solution is lower outside the cell than inside the cell, which
of the following will happen by osmosis?
A. Sugar will move into the cell.
B. Water will move into the cell.
C. Water will move out of the cell.
D. Both (a) and (c)
B ___
18.Which of these always involves the movement of a vesicle?
A. diffusion
B. endocytosis
C. facilitated diffusion
D. All of the above
C ___
19.How do organisms store and use energy?
A. by converting oxygen into organic compounds
B. by taking in electrons from electron transport chains
C. by making and breaking the chemical bonds in organic compounds
D. by transferring energy through the process of homeostasis
A ___
20. What is the main way that organisms contribute to the carbon cycle?
A. through metabolic processes
B. through the diffusion of hydrogen ions
C. by reflecting light
D. by splitting water molecules
D ___
21. Which is the ultimate source of energy for most organisms on Earth?
A. oxygen
B. water
C. carbon dioxide
D. sunlight
A ___
22. What captures light energy for photosynthesis?
A. pigments in chloroplasts
B. electromagnetic radiation
C. thylakoids in mitochondria
D. hydrogen ions in ATP synthase
B ___
23. Which is necessary for the final stage of photosynthesis to occur?
A. chlorophyll
B. carbon dioxide
C. oxygen
D. glucose
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
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Cell Structure
Questions 24-26 refer to the graphs below.
C ___
24. Graph A demonstrates that the rate of photosynthesis
A. decreases in response to increasing light intensity.
B. increases indefinitely in response to increasing light intensity.
C. increases in response to increasing light intensity but only to a certain point.
D. is not affected by changes in light intensity.
D ___
25. Taken together, these graphs demonstrate
A. photosynthesis is independent of environmental influences.
B. increases in light intensity correlated with increases in temperature.
C. as the rate of photosynthesis increases, light intensity and temperature eventually
decrease.
D. the rate of photosynthesis is affected by changes in the environment.
C ___
C ___
26. Would you expect a graph showing the relationship between carbon dioxide concentration
and rate of photosynthesis to be similar to either of these graphs?
A. No. There is no relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and the rate of
photosynthesis.
B.
B. No. The
C. rate of photosynthesis remains steady with changing carbon dioxide
concentration.
C.
C. Yes. The
D. relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and carbon dioxide
concentration is similar to the relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and
light intensity.
D.
D. Yes. The
E. relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and carbon dioxide
concentration is similar to the relationship between and the rate of photosynthesis and
temperature.
27. When do your muscle cells use lactic acid fermentation?
A. when these cells run out of oxygen
B. when these cells run out of carbon dioxide
C. when these cells run out of ATP
D. when these cells need to use the electron transport chain
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
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Cell Structure
Complete each statement by writing the correct term or phrase in the space provided.
__microscope___________
28. Scientists first discovered cells by using a(n) _____.
___Cell membrane________
29. A cell’s boundary is called the _____.
__Ribosomes____________
30. _____ are cell structures common to both prokaryotes and
eukaryotes on which proteins are made.
___nucleus______________
____organells___________
31. Eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes in that only eukaryotic cells
32. have a(n) _____ and membrane-bound _____.
__DNA________________
33. The nucleus has a double membrane, called the nuclear envelope, that
helps protect a cell’s _____ from becoming damaged or lost. _____________
___vacuole_____________
34. In plant cells, rigidity is provided by a large, membrane-bound sac
called the ______.
_Endoplasmic reticulum___
_Golgi bodies___
35. When a cell makes proteins that are to be transported outside the
cell the proteins are packaged in the _____ modified and repackaged
36. in the ______ and then transported to the cell membrane.
__lysosomes_____________
37. Vesicles which contain enzymes that break down large molecules are
called ____.
_Cytoplasmic skeleton_____
38. The ____ is a network of protein fibers that supports a cell and aids
in its movement.
__chloroplasts___________
39. Organelles that use light energy to make sugar from water and
carbon dioxide are called ______.
__organ________________
40. A(n)_____ is made up of different kinds of tissues arranged
together to perform a specific function.
___multicellular__________
41. Cells in a(n) ______________________ organism cannot survive on
their own.
Questions 42-48 refer to the figure to the right.
42. The structure labeled A is the _cell membrane_______.
43. The organelle labeled B is the ___Golgi bodies________.
44. The structure labeled C is the __cell wall___________.
45. The structure labeled D is the __vacuole____________.
46. The organelle labeled E is the __Endoplasmic reticulum_.
47. The organelle labeled F is a(n) _mitochondria_______.
48. The organelle labeled G is a(n) __chloroplast____________________.
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
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Cell Structure
Questions 49-51 refer to the figures
below.
49. Figure A illustrates a cell in a(n) __hypertonic______________ solution.
50. Figure B illustrates a cell in a(n) __hypotonic_______________ solution.
51. Figure C illustrates a cell in a(n) __isotonic__________________ solution
In the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches each term.
b ____ 52. lipid bilayer
f ____ 53. concentration gradient
d ____ 54. facilitated diffusion
a ____ 55. active transport
e ____ 56. passive transport
c ____ 57. equilibrium
h ____ 58. ATP
i_____ 59. cellular respiration
g ____ 60. photosynthesis
a. the moving of a substance to an area of higher concentration,
using energy
b. double layer that makes up a cell membrane
c. the state that exists for a substance when the substance is
distributed evenly across a space
d. a form of passive transport that involves membrane proteins
that aid the movement of substances
e. the moving of a substance to an area of lower concentration
without any energy use
f. the difference in the concentration of a substance across a
region
g.the process some organisms can use to convert light energy
into chemical energy
h. the substance that stores and releases energy for most cell
processes
i. the process cells use to produce energy from carbohydrates
Read each question, and write your answer in the space provided.
61. List the primary differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
_ Prokaryotes are small, single-celled organisms that lack internal membrane-bound compartments,
including a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. The genetic material of prokaryotes is a
single loop of DNA. Eukaryotes may be single-celled or multicellular. They have a nucleus, which is a
membrane-bound compartment that houses the cell’s DNA, and other organelles that carry out specific
functions. Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells and can carry out more specialized
functions.
62. What are 2 functions of the nucleus?
_The nucleus contains the DNA which is the genetic information; is the control center of the cell; and
contains nucleoli which produce RNA and ribosomes. __ The main function of the nucleus is to store and
protect the DNA, preventing it from becoming damaged or lost ___________________
63. What do autotrophs need from the environment in order to carry out photosynthesis?
__Autotrophs need the sunlight, carbon dioxide and water in order to carry out photosynthesis. ___
64. List the three parts of the cell theory. Explain the significance of the cell theory to biology.
__
All living things are made up of one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in
organisms. All cells arise from existing cells.__________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
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Cell Structure
65. What would happen if the cell membrane became impermeable?
___Nothing would be able to enter or exit the cell. If this occurred the cell would not be to rid itself of
waste or to obtain the materials that it needed from its environment in order to survive.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
66. Compare and contrast the different methods cells use to move substances across the cell
membrane. _ Simple diffusion occurs when substances pass down the concentration gradient on their
own. Oxygen molecules passing from outside the cell, through the cell membrane, to the inside of a cell
is an example. Facilitated diffusion occurs when substances pass down the concentration gradient,
moving across the cell membrane with the aid of transport proteins—either channel proteins or carrier
proteins. Sodium ions can diffuse through a cell membrane by means of channel proteins.
The sodium-potassium pump is a carrier molecule that moves sodium against its concentration gradient
out of a cell and moves potassium against its concentration gradient into a cell. Sodium ions and a
phosphate group bind to the carrier protein inside the cell. The carrier protein changes shape and
releases the sodium ions outside the cell. Potassium ions that are outside the cell bind to the carrier
protein. The phosphate group is released from the protein. The protein returns to its original shape and
releases the potassium inside the cell.
Osmosis allows cells to maintain water balance as the conditions around the cell change.
The cell consumes food particles that are too big to pass through a channel protein by using
endocytosis.
Endocytosis is the movement of substances into a cell by means of vesicles; exocytosis is the movement
of substances out of a cell by means of vesicles. Both employ vesicles and both are examples of active
transport, and therefore require energy.
67. What are three environmental factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis?
____Three environmental factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis in plants are temperature, light
intensity and carbon dioxide levels. ____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
Holt Biology
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Cell Structure
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