THE CELL

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THE CELL
Organelle Functions
Cell Membrane
Controls the movement of
material in and out of the
cell.
Nucleus
Controls the actions of the
cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
(ER)
Connects the parts of the
cell. Allows for
transportation of material
around the cell.
Lysosomes
Cleans the cell of waste.
Golgi Apparatus
Packages nutrients for
delivery throughout the cell.
Mitochondria
Produces energy from eaten
food.
Cytoplasm
Jelly-like substance in the
cell
Ribosomes
Makes proteins for the cell
Vacuole
Contains water and
dissolved materials
Cell Wall (Plants Only)
Shapes and supports the cell
Chloroplasts (plants only)
Food for the plant is made
here (photosynthesis)
Chlorophyll(plants only)
Traps sun light for
photosynthesis
Do Now
What is a theory?
A Theory
Widely accepted
Supported by experimental
evidence and observations
Cell Theory
Every living thing is made of
one or more cells
Cells carry out the functions
needed to support life
Cells come only from other
living cells
Pasteur Experiment
Confirmed the cell theory
Did not support spontaneous
generation-the idea that living
things formed from non-living
things
Classification of Cells
Archaea- “ancient” usually found in extreme
environments. Prokaryotic cells
Bacteria-prokaryotic cells
Eukarya- are eukaryotic cells, more complex, includes
all multicellular organisms and some unicellular
organisms (protists and paramecium)
Multicellular
Organism
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ systems
Carbohydrates
Provides the cell with energy by
breaking down sugar
Lipids
Are fats and oils that are
used for energy and for
making organelles in the cell
Lipids can’t mix with water
important for the cell
Proteins
Made up of amino acids and are
used by the cell for proper cell
functioning
proteins help the cell transport
materials in and out of the cell
Nucleic Acids
Provide the cell with the
instructions for the
maintenance, growth, and
reproduction of the cell.
Cell Membrane
Made up of fats, provides a barrier
between materials inside the cell
and outside the cell.
Selectively permeable (semipermeable)-only some things are
allowed in/out of the cell.
Importance of Cell
Membrane
Allow needed materials into the cell
Prevents unwanted materials from getting into the
cell
Lets unneeded materials out of the cell
Cell Membrance animation
Cell Membrane
Passive Transport
When molecules move freely
across the cell membrane. No
energy is required from the cell.
Diffusion
Movement of
material from
an area of high
concentration
(crowded) to
an area of low
concentration
(uncrowded).
Osmosis
Diffusion of water
across a membrane
Diffusion Osmosis
Active Transport
When the cell uses energy
to move material across
the cell’s membrane.
Endocytosis
When the cell uses energy to
move large molecules into the
cell.
Exocytosis
When the cell uses energy to
move large molecules out of
the cell.
How does this picture
represent Active Transport?
Photosynthesis
Plants use energy from the sun to make food
Takes place in the chloroplasts by the chlorophyll
Materials needed: 1. Water (H2O)
2. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Materials produced: 1. Glucose-sugar (C6H12O6)
2. Oxygen (O2 )
Photosynthesis
H2O + CO2
C6H12O6 + O2
Respiration
Process where a plant uses the sugar made during
photosynthesis.
The use of sugar release energy
Takes place in the mitochondria
Produces waste: 1. Carbon dioxide
2. Water
Respiration
C6H12O6 + O2
H2O + CO2
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