Psyc 3102: Behavioral Genetics (Carey) Questions for the final (2000) Instructions: Below are a series of questions, some of which will appear verbatim on the final exam. You may prepare for the final in any way you wish (e.g., study with friends, see Denise and/or me, compose your answers beforehand), but the actual final will be closed book and closed notes. Define: 1) set point model of personality stability and change 2) meritocracy 3) heritocracy 4) smorgasbord model of personality development Essay Questions: 1) Name and define the five forces of human evolution. 2) Consider the following statement: "The United States of America is a vast melting pot. Among its people are many groups of Native Americans, the original inhabitants of the New World, as well as immigrants--some willing and some not so willing--from every area of the world. People of different ethnic backgrounds have been marrying one another even before the USA even became its own nation, and this process has been accelerating in recent years. In evolutionary terms, the USA is beginning to develop its own race--the American race." Critically evaluate this statement in terms of the social definition of race and the genetic definition of race that we learned in class. 3) Here is a complicated statement: "Empirical evidence suggests that being raised in the same family does not make siblings similar to one another in personality. However, these same data cannot be used to say that parents have no influence on their children's behavior." Give a lucid and common sense explanation of this statement to a layperson who is educated but does not have much training in psychology. Make certain to include the types of empirical data on which the above statement rests. 4) The following is a quote from a behavioral geneticist: “If a strong meritocracy evolves in this country [i.e., USA], it is more likely to be an educationally-driven meritocracy than an IQ-driven meritocracy.” Give a 2 to 3 sentence, COGENT explanation of this statement. 5) Describe the relationship among genes, intelligence (as measured by intelligence tests), and social stratification in modern industrialized society. Psyc 3102, Final Page 2 6) The phenomenon of personal ornamentation (i.e., fashion in clothes, hair, jewelry, tattoos, etc.) is found in every human culture. As is readily apparent to anyone who watches National Geographic and old movies, ornamentation varies tremendously from one culture to another and also changes over time within a single culture. There are also marked individual differences in ornamentation within a culture. To my knowledge, no one has ever done a twin or adoption study of ornamentation, but the results would probably show a moderate degree of heritability. Using your knowledge of both evolutionary psychology and the genetics of individual differences in behavior, write a lucid and coherent theoretical account of how genes might relate to personal ornamentation. 7) An asteroid strikes earth and results in the extinction of all human populations except for two-a group of native South American Indians living in the Andes and a population inhabiting the mountains of Ethiopia. The two populations grow in size and expand their areas until after several thousands of years, they eventually meet. Answer the following questions about this fictitious scenario. a.) Genetically, how similar and how different would these two populations be? b.) On what phenotypic traits are they likely to differ the most? c.) On what phenotypic traits are they likely to be most similar? d.) Give reasons for your answers to the above three questions. 8) Describe the role that culture has played in human evolution and give two specific examples of how culture has (probably) influenced the evolution of our species. 9) The following is an actual statement made to your professor by a very high ranking person in the Department of Justice—“If crime is genetic, then the implications for the penal system and the concept of rehabilitation are enormous.” Using your knowledge of the major conclusions to this course and of the concepts of heritability and environmentability, compose a lucid response to this statement. 10) Assortative mating: a) Define assortative mating. b) Give three traits on which we humans assort most strongly. c) Give two traits on which we humans do not assort, but most people suspect we would assort on. d) Give the two mechanisms thought to be most important for assortative mating and what is known about the relative importance of these two mechanisms for assortment.