Unit B4– Photosynthesis

C03 – Atoms, elements and compounds
At the end of this topic, you should:
3.1 Physical and Chemical Changes
Identify physical and chemical changes and understand the
differences between them
3.2 Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
Describe the differences between elements, compounds
and mixtures
Demonstrate understanding
of the concepts of element,
compound and mixture
3.3 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
Describe the structure of an atom in terms of electrons and
a nucleus containing protons and neutrons
State the relative charges and approximate relative masses
of protons, neutrons and electrons
Define proton number and nucleon number
Use proton number and the simple structure of atoms to
explain the basis of the Periodic Table (see C9), with
special reference to the elements of proton number 1 to 20
Define isotopes
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Describe the build-up of
electrons in ‘shells’ and
understand the significance of
the noble gas electronic
structures and of valence
electrons (the ideas of the
distribution of electrons in s
and p orbitals and in d block
elements are not required)
3.4 Ions and Ionic Bonds
Describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain
Describe the formation of ionic bonds between metals and
non-metals as exemplified by elements from Groups I and
Explain the formation of
ionic bonds between metallic
and non-metallic elements
Describe the lattice structure
of ionic compounds as a
regular arrangement of
alternating positive and
negative ions, exemplified by
the sodium chloride structure
3.5 Molecules and Covalent Bonds
State that non-metallic elements form non-ionic
compounds using a different type of bonding called
covalent bonding
Draw dot-and-cross diagrams
to represent the sharing of
electron pairs to form single
covalent bonds in simple
molecules, exemplified by
(but not restricted to) H2, Cl2,
H2O, CH4 and HCl
Describe the differences in volatility, solubility and
electrical conductivity between ionic and covalent
Draw dot-and-cross diagrams
to represent the multiple
bonding in N2, C2H4 and CO2
Describe the giant covalent
structures of graphite and
Relate their structures to the
use of graphite as a lubricant
and of diamond in cutting
Describe the structure of
silicon (IV) oxide (silicon
3.6 Giant Structures
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