Notes on Geography of Egypt

Egyptologist – Historians who specialize in the study of ancient Egypt’s past
Nile River – Considered to be Egypt’s “lifeline”
Regular, predictable floods; less dangerous
Fertile Soil renewed yearly
Fresh water, fish, food, etc.
Black Land – Fertile silt soil along the banks of the Nile
Egyptians called this “Kemet” (Black Land)
Benefits: Great for farming
Red Land – Dry desert land found in East and West
Called this “Deshret” (Red Land)
Benefits: Minerals & Protection
Egypt began divided into 2 parts; Upper
The 2 parts were eventually united/merged into one
kingdom under the 1st Egyptian king, Menes. He begins
wearing a double crown to represent the 2 areas.
Menes establishes a new capital city, called Memphis, and
eventually a Dynasty is formed as his son rules after Menes’
death. Thus begins a long line of families that rule Egypt.
As a result of these dynasties, Egypt’s history is divided into 3
time periods:
The Old Kingdom
“Age of the Pyramids”
The Middle Kingdom
“Age of the Nobles”
The New Kingdom
“Age of the Empire”