"INCINERATION" - TEXT 20 - SEPTEMBER - 1996. Growing populations and changing life-styles have produced growing amounts of waste. This has led to increasing pressure on local rubbish dumps (*), 2. - Are the following statements TRUE or FALSE? Write the evidence from the text. No marks are given for only True or False. (2 points) A) The process of burning rubbish is very expensive. periodic burning at many dump sites, and constructions of incinerators to reduce the volume of waste to be disposed of. The growing shortage of landfills (*) has focused attention on incineration, which can reduce the volume of rubbish by as much as 90 B) We will solve the problem of waste if we recycle our rubbish. percent. Reduction in weight is less, usually about 70 percent. Another benefit of incineration, only recently achieved, is the use of the energy released by burning to produce either electricity or steam for heating buildings. The problems with these processes have been their high costs, concern about air pollutants, and dangerous components in the ashes. The stimulus for waste incineration has been the increasing difficulty of finding land-disposal sites for urban waste. Opponents of incineration cite environmental effects such as toxic substances, possible water pollution, and siting problems. They also emphasize the high costs of 3. - Find the words or phrases in the text that mean. (1 point) A) lack (paragraph 1) > B) remains from burning (paragraph 2) > C) incentive (paragraph 2) > D) put (paragraph 4) > construction and maintenance of facilities. Another disadvantage is that recycling programmes may be stopped. The choice is not between incineration and recycling but between incineration 4.- Complete the following sentences. Use the appropriate form of the words in brackets when given. (2 points) and dumps. Even if the maximum recycling rate is achieved, the remaining municipal A) _______________ is responsible _______________ waste management in your city? waste cannot be accommodated in landfills. Some incineration is essential. The challenge B) “How _____________ is your rubbish collected?” “_____________ a day.” is to use the most modern technologies to expand both recycling and incineration -and to C) Some components in the ashes are extremely _______________________ (poison) continue to refine those technologies. The understanding and cooperation of all citizens is substances which are suspected of _______________________ (cause) cancer. essential. * dumps or landfills = vertederos. 1.- In your own words and based on the ideas from the text answer these questions. (Be careful with grammar. Write precise answers). (2 points) A) Why has incineration been introduced to get rid of waste? D) The urgency to act is great ___________________ both population size and the volume of waste increase _______________________________ year. 5.- Write about 60 to 100 words on ONE of the following topics. Do not copy from the text. (3 points) A) Would you mind living near an incineration plant if you were given free energy? B) What recommendations would you give to citizens and Governments in order to B) What are the objections of those who are against incineration? eliminate all the waste we produce?