The Cell : Structure and Function

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TEACHER MASTER
Cells and Systems- Science 8
THE CELL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Learning Outcomes Addressed
B1. demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics of living things
B2. relate the main features and properties of cells to their functions
- summarize the cell theory
- accurately list similarities and differences between cell types
- describe the structure and function of cell organelles
- recognize and name the parts of a cell using a microscope
Master of Template Notes begins on the following page so that it can
be easily transferred onto an overhead transparency.
 Recommended time required for this activity: 30 min as class
notes, could also be used as class notes and then have students
fill in functions of organelles using the science probe on their
own.
 Materials required: none
 Suggested “Check your Understanding” questions that
correspond from Science Probe 8 (if applicable):
o 1.1 #1-4 pg 6
o 1.3 #2-6 pg 13
o 1.6 #1,3,4 pg 21
 Suggested “Inquiry Investigations” from Science Probe 8 that
correspond:
o 1.2 Using a Microscope pg 7
o 1.4 Comparing Plants and Animal Cells pg 14
Notes and Activities – Science 8
TEACHER MASTER
Cells and Systems- Science 8
THE CELL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Cells are the BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF ALL LIVING
THINGS,
the smallest unit that can function on its own.
In 1665, HOOKE observed tiny room-like structures while
looking at a thin slice of cork through a compound
microscope. He called these structures CELLS.
The CELL THEORY is how we as biologists gauge whether or
not an object is living.
It states that:
1. ALL LIIVING THINGS ARE MADE UP OF ONE OR MORE
CELLS
2. ALL LIVING CELLS COME FROM PRE-EXISTING
CELLS
Why was the development of the cell theory important for the
progress of science?
SCIENTISTS FINALLY HAD A WAY TO DESCRIBE WHAT
LIFE WAS!
What would have been the limitations of this “new science”
when cells were discovered?
MICROSCOPES WERE NOT ADVANCED ENOUGH TO
SEE THE INNER WORKINGS OF THE CELL
Notes and Activities – Science 8
TEACHER MASTER
Cells and Systems- Science 8
The inside of the CELL is made up of many structures that we
now call ORGANELLES
(like mini organs that keep the cell working the way it should)
Organelle Structure and Function
The organelles inside the cell serve many functions together
including:
1.
PROVIDING PROTECTION AND SUPPORT
2.
FORMING A BARRIER BETWEEN THE CELL AND
THE ENVIRONMENT
3.
BUILDING AND REPAIRING CELLS
4.
TRANSPORTING MATERIALS
5.
STORING AND RELEASING ENERGY
6.
GETTING RID OF WASTE MATERIAL
7.
INCREASING IN NUMBER
Most cells share similar characteristics. It is these
characteristics that we are going to learn about although there
are some major differences between animal and plant cells.
Notes and Activities – Science 8
TEACHER MASTER
Cells and Systems- Science 8
Take a look at the pictures of animal and plant cells below and see if you can
determine any major differences. Write the differences in the space below
Typical Animal Cell
Typical Plant Cell
Notes and Activities – Science 8
TEACHER MASTER
Cells and Systems- Science 8
As you learn the functions of the following organelles see if you can
find them on the plant and/or animal cell!!
 Cell Wall: Supporter and Protector
- PROVIDES A PROTECTIVE
AND SUPPORTIVE BARRIER IN
PLANT CELLS
- MADE OF CELLULOSE (PLANT
FIBRE)
 Cell Membrane: Doorway to the Cell
- CONTROLS NUTRIENTS AND
WASTE ENTERING AND
LEAVING THE CELL
- PROVIDES A PROTECTIVE
OUTER BARRIER
- HAS TWO LAYERS OF FAT
MOLECULES (LIPIDS) THAT
INCLUDE PROTIENS
 Nucleus: The Brain
- CONTROLS THE ACTIVITIES
OF THECELL (THE BRAIN OF
THE CELL)
- CONTAINS ALL THE GENETIC
INFORMATION
b. Nuclear Membrane
- DOUBLE LAYERED
MEMBRANE THAT CONTROLS
MOLECULES ENTERING AND
LEAVING THE NUCLEUS
Notes and Activities – Science 8
TEACHER MASTER
Cells and Systems- Science 8
c. Nucleolus
- DARK AREA INSIDE THE
NUCLEUS
- PLAYS A ROLE IN PROTEIN
PRODUCTION
d. Chromosomes
- GENETIC MATERIAL OF THE
CELL (MADE UP OF DNA)
 Endoplasmic Reticulum: Transportation System
- TRANSPORTS AND STORES
MATERIAL (PROTEIN) WITHIN
THE CELL
- CONNECTS ORGANELLES
TOGETHER
- RUNS THROUGH THE
CYTOPLASM LIKE A MAZE OF
FREEWAYS!
 Mitochondria: Powerhouse of the Cell
- PRODUCE CHEMICAL ENERGY
FORTHE CELL
- BEAN SHAPED WITH LOTS OF
FOLDS ON THE INSIDE TO
INCREASE SURFACE AREA
- THEY HAVE THE ABILITY TO
REPRODUCE INSIDE THE
CELL IF IT NEEDS MORE
ENERGY!!
- FOUND IN PLANT AND ANIMAL
CELLS
Notes and Activities – Science 8
TEACHER MASTER
Cells and Systems- Science 8
 Chloroplast: Energy Producers
- PRODUCE CHEMICAL ENERGY
FOR THE PLANT CELL
- CONTAIN CHLOROPHYLL
WHICH ACCOUNTS FOR THEIR
GREEN COLOR
- OVAL SHAPED
 Vacuoles: Storage Tanks
- USED FOR STORAGE OF
WATER AND FOOD
- TRANSPORT MATERIALS
WITHIN THE CELL
- VACUOLES CAN FUSE WITH
LYSOSOMES
- VERY LARGE IN PLANT CELLS
AND HELP WITH STRUCTURE
 Golgi Body (Complex): Packers and Shippers
- COLLECTS PROTIEN FROM
THE CELL, PACKAGES IT INTO
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
VESICLES AND THEN SHIPS
THOSE OFF INTO THE CELL
(OR OUTSIDE THE CELL) TO
WHERE IT IS NEEDED
- LOOKS LIKE A STACK OF
PANCAKES!
Notes and Activities – Science 8
TEACHER MASTER
Cells and Systems- Science 8
 Ribosomes: Protien Producers
- MADE UP OF PROTEIN AND
RNA
- PRODUCE MORE PROTIEN TO
BE USED IN THE CELL
- ARE FOUND FLOATING IN THE
CYTOPLASM OR ATTACHED
TO THE ER.
 Lysosomes: Suicide Sacs
- LITTLE SACS OF DIGESTIVE
ENZYMES WHICH ARE USED
TO HELP BREAK DOWN
UNWANTED PARTS OF THE
CELL. (OLD ORGANELLES
THAT ARE NOT FUNCTIONING
PROPERLY)
- CAN EXPLODE AND KILL THE
ENTIRE CELL AS WELL
Notes and Activities – Science 8
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