# Chapter 7 – Weathering and Erosion

```Chapter 6 – Views of Earth
Section 2 & 3: Latitude and Longitude and Maps
Study Guide
Latitude
 The _______________ is an imaginary line that circles the Earth halfway between
the north and south poles. It separates the Earth into two equal halves - the
northern ______________ and the _______________ hemisphere.
 ______________ is the distance, measured in degrees, north or south of the
equator. These lines are horizontal, ____________, and never intersect.
 The equator is _______ latitude and the poles are _________ latitude.
 Locations north and south of the equator are referred to by degrees ____________
latitude or degrees _____________ latitude. The degrees are further broken down
into _________________ and _________________.
Longitude
 The ________________ _______________ is an imaginary line that runs
vertically from the North Pole through Greenwich, England, to the South Pole.
This line separates east from _________________.
 ______________ is the distance east or west of the prime meridian. These lines
are vertical and never intersect, but the lines do meet at the_____________.
 Longitude is measured from 0° to _________°. The prime meridian is ______°
longitude. Points east or west of the prime meridian are referred to by degrees
______________ longitude or degrees ____________ longitude.
 Unlike the equator, the _____________ _______________does not circle the
Earth. The line of longitude on the opposite side of Earth from the prime meridian
is 180° longitude, called the ______________________ _________ ________.
Finding
Locations
 Latitude is written _________ in a coordinate set.
 Latitude is given north or south of the ______________. Longitude is given east
or west of the _________________ ___________________.
 Examples: 30° N, 90° W = New Orleans, Louisiana
Japan
Time Zones
36° N, 140° E = Tokyo,
 Time is measured by tracking Earth’s movement in relation to the __________.
Each day has ________ hours, so Earth is divided into 24 _________ ________.
 Each time zone is 15° of ________________ wide and is _____ hour different
from the zones beside it.
 The United States has _____ different time zones. As you travel from east to west
across the U.S., you _______ an hour. Ex: 5 pm Eastern Time is _____pm Central
Time is _____ pm Mountain Time is _______pm Pacific Time.
Maps
 When you travel across the International Date Line, you gain or lose a whole
______. If you travel west across the International Date Line, you move
______________one day. If you travel east across the Line, you move
_____________ one calendar day. Ex: If you flew from Hawaii on a Friday, it
would be _________________ when you landed in Australia.
 _____________ are models of Earth’s surface. The most perfect map is a
_________.
 Maps are made as ___________ ______________. A map projection is made
when _____________ and ____________on a globe’s surface are transferred onto
_______________.
Mercator
Projections
 There are _______ main types of map projections and all of them
______________ the shape of the landmasses of their areas.
 __________________ map projections are used mainly on_____________.
 They project the correct ___________ of the continents, but the areas are distorted.
 Longitude lines are projected as____________________, making the areas near
the poles look much ____________________than they are.
Robinson
Projections
 A ___________________ projection shows accurate continent ____________ and
more accurate land ___________________.
Conic
Projection
 In this projection, the lines of longitude are _______________ as they are on a
globe, which results in less ____________________ near the poles.
 _________________ projections are made by projection points and lines from a
globe onto a_____________________.
Topographic
Maps
 These are used to make maps of ___________________ areas, like
_______________maps and _____________________ maps.
 A _______________________ __________shows the changes in elevation of
Earth’s surface.
 These maps show natural features and also cultural features, such as__________,
_____________________ and other structures built by people.
 These maps are helpful when doing outdoor activities like _________________.
 A __________________ _____________ is a line on a topo map that connects
points of equal elevation.
 The difference in elevation between two side-by-side contour lines is the
_______________ _________________, which stays constant throughout a map.
 Not all contour lines are marked with the _____________________. The ones that
are labeled are called the ___________________ ________________. You can
determine the elevation of other lines by adding or subtracting the
__________________ _________________ from the elevation on the index
contour.
Contours
1. The closer the contour lines, the ____________________ the change in elevation.
2. Contour lines _______________ and form a complete circle around the tops of
_____________ or mountains, or the bottom of_________________.
3. To tell the difference between a hill or depression, look at the elevation numbers or
look for____________________ – short lines drawn at right angles to the contour
line. These lines point toward lower____________________.
4. Contour lines never___________________. If they did, it would mean that the
spot where they cross would have two different __________________________.
5. Contour lines from __________ that point _________________ when they cross
streams. *Remember a river flows downstream, or downhill.
Map Scale
 The ____________ ___________is the relationship between the distances on the
map and distances on Earth’s surface.
 Example: A topo map has a scale that reads 1:80,000. This means that one unit on
the map represents _________________ units on land. If you used a centimeter, 1
cm on the map would equal 80,000 _____ on land. The units of measurement on
the map and on the land must always be the______________.
Map Legend
 A _______ _______________explains what the symbols used on the map mean.
Map Series
 Topo maps are made to cover different amounts of the Earth’s surface.
 The __________ _____________includes maps that measure the same area of the
surface.
 Example: A series may include 7.5 minute maps. These cover 7.5 minutes of
_________________ by 7.5 minutes of ___________________ of Earth’s surface.
```
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