Chapter 6 – Views of Earth Section 2 & 3: Latitude and Longitude and Maps Study Guide Latitude The _______________ is an imaginary line that circles the Earth halfway between the north and south poles. It separates the Earth into two equal halves - the northern ______________ and the _______________ hemisphere. ______________ is the distance, measured in degrees, north or south of the equator. These lines are horizontal, ____________, and never intersect. The equator is _______ latitude and the poles are _________ latitude. Locations north and south of the equator are referred to by degrees ____________ latitude or degrees _____________ latitude. The degrees are further broken down into _________________ and _________________. Longitude The ________________ _______________ is an imaginary line that runs vertically from the North Pole through Greenwich, England, to the South Pole. This line separates east from _________________. ______________ is the distance east or west of the prime meridian. These lines are vertical and never intersect, but the lines do meet at the_____________. Longitude is measured from 0° to _________°. The prime meridian is ______° longitude. Points east or west of the prime meridian are referred to by degrees ______________ longitude or degrees ____________ longitude. Unlike the equator, the _____________ _______________does not circle the Earth. The line of longitude on the opposite side of Earth from the prime meridian is 180° longitude, called the ______________________ _________ ________. Finding Locations Latitude is written _________ in a coordinate set. Latitude is given north or south of the ______________. Longitude is given east or west of the _________________ ___________________. Examples: 30° N, 90° W = New Orleans, Louisiana Japan Time Zones 36° N, 140° E = Tokyo, Time is measured by tracking Earth’s movement in relation to the __________. Each day has ________ hours, so Earth is divided into 24 _________ ________. Each time zone is 15° of ________________ wide and is _____ hour different from the zones beside it. The United States has _____ different time zones. As you travel from east to west across the U.S., you _______ an hour. Ex: 5 pm Eastern Time is _____pm Central Time is _____ pm Mountain Time is _______pm Pacific Time. Maps When you travel across the International Date Line, you gain or lose a whole ______. If you travel west across the International Date Line, you move ______________one day. If you travel east across the Line, you move _____________ one calendar day. Ex: If you flew from Hawaii on a Friday, it would be _________________ when you landed in Australia. _____________ are models of Earth’s surface. The most perfect map is a _________. Maps are made as ___________ ______________. A map projection is made when _____________ and ____________on a globe’s surface are transferred onto _______________. Mercator Projections There are _______ main types of map projections and all of them ______________ the shape of the landmasses of their areas. __________________ map projections are used mainly on_____________. They project the correct ___________ of the continents, but the areas are distorted. Longitude lines are projected as____________________, making the areas near the poles look much ____________________than they are. Robinson Projections A ___________________ projection shows accurate continent ____________ and more accurate land ___________________. Conic Projection In this projection, the lines of longitude are _______________ as they are on a globe, which results in less ____________________ near the poles. _________________ projections are made by projection points and lines from a globe onto a_____________________. Topographic Maps These are used to make maps of ___________________ areas, like _______________maps and _____________________ maps. A _______________________ __________shows the changes in elevation of Earth’s surface. These maps show natural features and also cultural features, such as__________, _____________________ and other structures built by people. These maps are helpful when doing outdoor activities like _________________. A __________________ _____________ is a line on a topo map that connects points of equal elevation. The difference in elevation between two side-by-side contour lines is the _______________ _________________, which stays constant throughout a map. Not all contour lines are marked with the _____________________. The ones that are labeled are called the ___________________ ________________. You can determine the elevation of other lines by adding or subtracting the __________________ _________________ from the elevation on the index contour. Rules about Contours 1. The closer the contour lines, the ____________________ the change in elevation. 2. Contour lines _______________ and form a complete circle around the tops of _____________ or mountains, or the bottom of_________________. 3. To tell the difference between a hill or depression, look at the elevation numbers or look for____________________ – short lines drawn at right angles to the contour line. These lines point toward lower____________________. 4. Contour lines never___________________. If they did, it would mean that the spot where they cross would have two different __________________________. 5. Contour lines from __________ that point _________________ when they cross streams. *Remember a river flows downstream, or downhill. Map Scale The ____________ ___________is the relationship between the distances on the map and distances on Earth’s surface. Example: A topo map has a scale that reads 1:80,000. This means that one unit on the map represents _________________ units on land. If you used a centimeter, 1 cm on the map would equal 80,000 _____ on land. The units of measurement on the map and on the land must always be the______________. Map Legend A _______ _______________explains what the symbols used on the map mean. Map Series Topo maps are made to cover different amounts of the Earth’s surface. The __________ _____________includes maps that measure the same area of the surface. Example: A series may include 7.5 minute maps. These cover 7.5 minutes of _________________ by 7.5 minutes of ___________________ of Earth’s surface.