ws_ ch.2 ex

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2.1
Chemicals of life (Book 1A, p. 2-3)
What are the inorganic chemical constituents of organisms?
A
(Book 1A, p. 2-3)
1
Water (Book 1A, p. 2-3)
Function
Example

To dissolve substances and provide a (1) ____________ (介質) for
chemical reactions to take place
As a solvent

To (2) ____________ substances, e.g. (3) ____________ consists
mainly of water, which transports nutrients, wastes and gases
around the body
As a (4) ___________

mammals and transpiration (蒸騰) in plants
agent
As a (6) ___________

To involve in some reactions, e.g. (7) ____________ (光合作用) and
digestion of food
(反應物)

To give (8) _______________ and support to organisms, e.g. cells
of young seedlings become turgid when they are full of water
Providing support

2
To remove heat through (5) _______________, e.g. sweating in
To provide (9) _______________ (浮力) for organisms in water
Inorganic ions (Book 1A, p. 2-5)
Inorganic ion
I
Nitrate
II
Magnesium
III
Calcium
IV Iron
Function
a
keeping bones and teeth hard and strong; involving in muscle
contraction and blood clotting (凝血)
b
forming haemoglobin (血紅蛋白) which carries oxygen
c
forming proteins
d
activating (活化) some enzymes (酶) and forming
chlorophyll (葉綠素) in plants
I: (10) __________
B
II: (11) __________
III: (12) __________
IV: (13) __________
What are the organic chemical constituents of organisms?
(Book 1A, p. 2-6)

The major organic chemical constituents of organisms are often called
(14) _______________ (生物分子). They all contain (15) _______________ atoms.
Ch. 2 / Cell / P.1
Biomolecule
(16) ___________
Example
Function
(17) __________ (葡萄糖)
Provide energy
Starch (澱粉)
(18) ____________ energy in plants
(19) __________ (纖維素)
Make up plant cell walls
Fats and oils
Act as an energy reserve
Phospholipids (磷脂)
Make up (20) ___________ of the cells
(碳水化合物)
Lipids (脂質)
Fibrous proteins (纖維狀蛋白質) Build up body structures, e.g. muscles
Proteins (蛋白質)
(21) ___________
Enzymes speed up biochemical reactions
___________ (球狀蛋白質)
Antibodies defend the body against diseases
Nucleic acids
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Carry (22) ____________ information
(核酸)
(DNA 脫氧核糖核酸)
(遺傳信息)
2.2
Discovery of cells (Book 1A, p. 2-8)
B
What is the cell theory? (Book 1A, p. 2-8)
Schwann proposed the cell theory (細胞學說) in 1839. The theory states that:

all organisms are made up of one or more (1) _______________;

the cell is the (2) _______________ unit of life; it is the (3) _______________ unit that shows
all the characteristics of life;

all cells come from (4) _______________ cells.
2.3
A
The basic structure of a cell (Book 1A, p. 2-12)
What is the structure of animal cells? (Book 1A, p. 2-12)
Animal cell structure
Feature and function

thin and flexible
(1) _______________

surrounds the cytoplasm
_______________

(2) _______________ permeable (差異透性的)

controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell

a (3) _______________ substance consisting of water,
Cytoplasm
Ch. 2 / Cell / P.2
(4) _______________ and other chemical substances

holds (5) _______________ (細胞器)

provides a place for (6) _______________ reactions to take
place

exists in all animal cells except mature (7) _______________
_______________ _______________

Nucleus
round-shaped and bounded by the (8) _______________
membrane (核膜)

contains the genetic material (9) _______________

controls all activities of the cell

a network of interconnected membrane-bounded
(11) _______________
(10) _______________
_______________ (ER)

connects cytoplasm and the nuclear membrane

rough ER (with (12) _______________ (核糖體) attached) is
responsible for (13) _______________ synthesis

smooth ER (without ribosome) is involved in the synthesis
and transport of (14) _______________

Mitochondrion
(17) _______________
B

rod-shaped and bounded by a (15) _______________
membrane

inner membrane is highly folded

releases energy through (16) _______________

contains water and dissolved substances

bounded by a differentially permeable membrane

small or even not present in most animal cells
What is the structure of plant cells? (Book 1A, p. 2-15)
The basic structure of plant cells is similar to animal cells. They both have a cell membrane,
cytoplasm, a nucleus, (19) _______________ and endoplasmic reticulum.

Special structures in plant cells that cannot be found in animal cells:
Plant cell structure
Feature and function

made up of (21) _______________
(20) _______________

thick and rigid
______________

(22) _______________ permeable

protects, supports and gives shape to plant cells
Ch. 2 / Cell / P.3
Large central vacuole

contains cell sap (細胞液)

(23) ______________ and located at the centre of the cell

the cell becomes turgid when it is full of water, thus
supports the plant
Chloroplast

bounded by a double membrane

contains green pigment (24) _______________ which
absorbs light energy for (25) _______________
2.4
Levels of body organization (Book 1A, p. 2-19)
Cell
Smooth muscle cell
Similar cells group together to form a
(1) _______________. They work together to perform
one or more particular functions.
Tissue
Smooth muscle tissue
Different tissues group together to form an
(2) _______________. They cooperate to perform one
Organ
or more particular functions.
Stomach
Several organs work together to perform a particular
task.
System
Digestive system
Different systems work together to support the life of
an organism.
Organism
Human
Ch. 2 / Cell / P.4
2.5

Using a light microscope (Book 1A, p. 2-20)
The total magnification (總放大率) of the microscope is the (20) _______________ of the
magnification of the eyepiece and that of the objective.

The image observed under the microscope is inverted (21) _______________
_______________ and laterally.

In order to make the specimens more clearly to be observed, we often use methylene blue
solution (for animal cells) or (22) _______________ solution (for plant cells) to stain them.
2.6

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (Book 1A, p. 2-26)
Eukaryotes (真核生物) are organisms made up of (1) _______________ cells (真核細胞) which
contain a true nucleus.

(2) _______________ (原核生物) are organisms made up of prokaryotic cells (原核細胞) which
do not have a membrane-bounded nucleus.
(3) _______________ _______________ (DNA)
cytoplasm
cell wall
(4) ______________
cell membrane
 Basic structure of a prokaryotic cell

Differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells:
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
Size
Usually smaller
Usually larger
Position of genetic
DNA lying free in the
DNA enclosed in the
material
(5) _______________
(6) _______________
Nuclear membrane
Absent
Present
Absent
Present
Mitochondria,
chloroplasts, ER
Ch. 2 / Cell / P.5

May be present or absent

Does not contain cellulose

Present in
(7) _____________ cells
Cell wall
but absent in
(8) _____________ cells

Example
Contains cellulose
Higher plants and higher
(9) _______________ (細菌)
animals
The diagram below shows the structure of a cell.
A
B
C
D
a
Name the structures A to D.
(4 marks)
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
b
Is this cell a plant cell or an animal cell? Based on the diagram, give two reasons to support
your answer.
(3 marks)
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
c
Give two features shown in the diagram which support that the cell is eukaryotic.
(2 marks)
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
d
Which organelle involved in respiration is not shown in the diagram?
(1 mark)
____________________________________________________________________________
- END -
Ch. 2 / Cell / P.6
Answers
Ch 2
The cell as the basic unit of life
2.1
1
medium
2
transport
3
plasma
4
cooling
5
evaporation
6
reactant
7
photosynthesis
8
shape
9
buoyancy
10
c
11
d
12
a
13
b
14
biomolecules
15
carbon
16
Carbohydrates
17
Glucose
18
Store
19
Cellulose
20
membranes
21
Globular proteins 22
genetic
1
cells
2
basic
3
smallest
4
pre-existing
5
Light microscopes
6
two-dimensional
7
surface
8
three-dimensional
1
Cell membrane
2
differentially
3
jelly-like
4
proteins
5
organelles
6
chemical
7
red blood cells
8
nuclear
9
DNA
10
Endoplasmic reticulum
11
sacs
12
ribosomes
13
protein
14
lipids
15
double
16
respiration
17
Vacuole
18
support
19
mitochondria
20
Cell wall
21
cellulose
22
fully
23
large
24
chlorophyll
25
photosynthesis
tissue
2
organ
1
lenses
2
Eyepiece
3
lens
4
Body tube
5
Objective
6
Stage
7
Condenser
8
focus
9
Diaphragm
10
light
11
Coarse adjustment knob
12
rough
13
Fine adjustment knob
14
sharp
15
Arm
16
Clip
17
Base
19
reflects
20
product
21
upside down
22
Iodine
1
eukaryotic
2
Prokaryotes
3
genetic material
4
ribosome
6
nucleus
7
plant
8
animal
9
Bacteria
2.2
2.3
2.4
1
2.5
18
Mirror
5
cytoplasm
2.6
Ch. 2 / Cell / P.7
Exercise
a
b
A: Chloroplast
1m
B: Rough endoplasmic reticulum
1m
C: Nucleus
1m
D: Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
1m
It is a plant cell.
1m
Reason: Any two from:
1m × 2
It contains chloroplasts.
It has a cell wall.
It has a large vacuole.
c
Any two from:
1m × 2
It has a true nucleus.
It has endoplasmic reticulum / The ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
It has organelles bounded by a double membrane / chloroplasts.
d
Mitochondrion
Ch. 2 / Cell / P.8
1m
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