Respiratory and Urinary System

Respiratory and Urinary System
Unit 6 study sheet
Major topics covered in both systems
Make sure you have a good understanding of the following topics covered in this unit.
Structure & Function of the Respiratory System, Gas Laws, Ventilation Forms & Rates, Compliance, elasticity, &
Surface tension, Breathing & Airway dynamics, Lung Capacities & Volumes, Gas Compositions in RT, Auscultation,
Ventilation & Blood Flow Ratios, Lung Disorders, Solubility & Diffusion of Gases, Influences on O 2 & CO2 carrying
ability of Blood, Effects of 2,3DPG, Bohr, Haldene, CNS Control Centers, Respiratory & Metabolic Acidosis &
Alkalosis, Structure & function of the kidneys and nephrons, Process & locations of Filtration, Secretion,
Reabsorption, Pressure dynamics of the Kidney, GFR & Auto-regulation, Renal Clearance, Neuro-Hormonal
Control over Clearance, Fluid & Electrolyte Homeostasis.
Chapter 17:Mechanics of Breathing
Study on your own
1. Review the structures of the respiratory system and the functions they each perform. What structures
are part of the respiratory zones and conducting zones? Do anatomy labeling on worksheet for lab 36.
2. Be able to explain all the functions of the respiratory system. Be able to explain all the processes that
happen at each structure of the respiratory system. Include the process of internal/external respiration,
pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange & transport. Review the concepts of lab 37A & PhysioEx lab 37B.
3. Name and explain common disorders of the respiratory system
Topics covered in lecture
1. Explain the mechanisms and relationships for the following: expiration, inspiration, alveolar
ventilation, internal and external respiration, gas transport, and cellular respiration.
2. Explain the pressure changes in the mechanisms listed above and explain all other functions of the
respiratory system. Include the muscles used for respiration. When are muscles used or not used?
3. What is the relationship between intrapleural, alveolar, and pulmonary pressure?
4. How is lung volume and lung capacity determined? How is respiration controlled- including reflex
patterns and peripheral and central chemoreceptor action? Include the feedback loops.
5. What factors play a role in preventing lung collapse? Define and relate and apply the following terms:
partial pressure, Boyle’s Law, Henry’s Law, surfactant, pleural membranes,oxygen, hemoglobin, partial
pressure, acidity, DPG, temperature,
6. Define the following terms and be able to read them on a graph like fig 17-7: tidal volume (TV),
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), Expiratory reserve volume (ERV), Residual volume (RV), Inspiratory
capacity (IC) (IRV + TV), Functional residual capacity (FRC)=(RV + ERV); Vital capacity (VC)=(TV +
IRV + ERV); Total lung capacity(TLC).
Chapter 18: Gas Exchange and Transport
Study on your own
1. Review the concepts in physioEx lab 37B regarding factors that affect breathing (such as rebreathing)
2. Study table 18-2 & figure 18-19 & 18-20
3. Review Boyle’s law, Haldane effect, Bohr effect, and chloride shift. Look for the relationship between
the topics covered in Chpt 17 & 18 to what’s in 19 & 20.
4. What is the relationship between the respiratory, circulatory, and urinary system?
Topics covered in lecture
1. What components control the respiratory system? What factors affect the rate of ventilation? What
factors play a role in maintaining blood pH? What role do partial pressures play in gas exchange and
loading/unloading of O2 and CO2 from the RBC?
2. Be able to read graphs that explain changes in lung volume and in pressure of different pulmonary
regions, also graphs for oxygen saturation, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Be able to explain all
the factors that play a role in total arterial oxygen content.
3. Explain why a red blood cell reacts differently with oxygen and carbon dioxide. What’s the structure of
hemoglobin? How does temperature and pH affect hemoglobin binding?
4. What triggers the reflex control for ventilation, trace it’s circuit
Chapter 19: The Kidneys
Study on your own
1. Review the anatomical structure of the kidney and the nephron in detail. Complete the anatomy
labeling sections of the worksheet for lab 40. What are the functions of the different regions of the kidney
and the nephron?
2. Know some common kidney diseases and the roles that the kidney plays in acidosis, alkalosis, diuretic
effects, hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic bone disease, sweating, hemodialysis, peritoneal
dialysis, and transplantation.
Topics covered in lecture
1. What are systemic functions of the kidney? What are all the functions of the urinary system aside from
urine production? How do they happen?
2. What hormones affect the kidney? What hormones are released by the kidney?
3. Describe the processes of filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion. How are they different from
one another and what do they share in common. How are these processes different in abnormal
conditions such as diabetes?
4. What factors affect filtration rate? What is the role of the macula densa?
5. How and where does reabsorption occur? What gets reabsorbed? How is it determined what substances
are reabsorbed?
6. How and where does secretion occur? How is that different from excretion? What is clearance? How is
micturition controlled?
Chapter 20: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Study on your own
1. Review the role of ions electrolytes discussed in this chapter and think about how they enter into
circulation. Make a table with four columns title: ion name, multiple functions, chemical that influences
it’s concentration in blood, and how is it cleared.
2. Make a summary chart that shows how water is balanced by multiple systems.
3. Closely go over Fig. 20-14-20-16, 20-18 and table 20-1
Topics covered in lecture
1. What is mass balance? How is it maintained? What systems are involved in mass balance?
2. How does intake of certain ions and water affect blood pressure? What it’s the homeostatic response?
3. What does osmolarity have to do with water balance? How is water excreted or reabsorbed?
4. What is the importance of the various osmolarities along the nephron? How does that relate to a
countercurrent system?
5. Explain in DETAIL how are the following regulated and balanced: sodium, calcium, potassium, water,
and hydrogen ions? What role do each of the items listed above play in homeostasis?
6. What molecules act as buffer? What is the systems responses to acidosis or alkalosis? What factors can
create these conditions?