NAME: ___________________________________ DATE: _______________ BLOCK: ____ Overview: In the early 1900’s Karl Landsteiner discovered that there are at least four different blood types. In human red blood cells (eruthrocytes), the presence of certain antigens determines the blood type. These antigens have been designated A and B. If a person has only A antigens, then he or she is type A. The absence of A or B antigens has been called type O blood. Humans produce antibodies against antigens that are not on their red blood cells. Therefore, a person who has type A blood, produces anti-B antibodies. A person with type O blood produces anti-A and anti-B antibodies. If a person who has type A blood, receives a donation of type B blood, the person’s anti-B antibodies will “attack” the donated type B blood cells. This causes agglutination or clotting and is fatal. Look at Table 1 which summarizes information about each blood type. TABLE 1: BLOOD TYPES Blood Type Antigens on red blood cells Antibodies Can donate to… Can receive from… A A Anti-B A & AB A&O B B Anti-A B & AB B&O AB A&B Neither Anti-A nor anti-B AB A, B, AB, & O O Neither A nor B Anti-A & Anti-B A, B, AB, & O O There is a simple test to determine blood type, performed with antisera containing high levels of anti-A , anti-B, or anti-Rh antibodies. Several drops of each kind of antiserum are added to separate samples of blood. You will use Table 2 to figure out your blood type. For example, if agglutination occurs only in the sample to which anti-A was added, the blood type is A-. If agglutination occurs in with all three antisera, the blood is type AB+. The Rh factor is yet another set of antigens in human red blood cells that were discovered in 1940. The genetics of the Rh blood group is complicated because there are at least 8 alleles and six different antigens for the Rh factor. To simplify this, one is designated Rh+ for presence of any of the Rh antigens and Rh- for the complete absence of the antigens. In Table 2, agglutination with Anti-Rh serum indicates Rh+ while no agglutination means the blood is Rh-. Use Table 2 to see if you can determine the blood type in the example in Figure 1. TABLE 2: AGGLUTINAION REACTION OF ABO BLOOD-TYPING SERA Agglutination or not? BLOOD TYPE Anti-A Serum Anti-B Serum Anti-Rh Serum Yes No No A- Yes No Yes A+ No Yes No B- No Yes Yes B+ Yes Yes No AB- Yes Yes Yes AB+ No No No O- No No Yes O+ Remember simply that YOU ARE WHAT YOU CLOT! What blood type is shown in the results pictured?__________________ Gather the following materials: MATERIALS 2 sterile alcohol pads 1 sterile lancet 1 blood typing tray 3 toothpicks Gloves Anti-A typing serum Anti-B typing serum Anti-Rh serum PROCEDURE Each student may test only his or her own blood! 1. Thoroughly clean the tip of one finger on your non-dominant hand with a sterile alcohol pad. 2. Open a sterile lancet from the end that is closest to the blunt end of the lancet. 3. Prick the finger that you cleaned with alcohol. 4. Put the lancet back into the package and dispose of in the biohazard bag. 5. Squeeze one drop of blood into each well on the blood typing tray. 6. Clean your pricked finger with a sterile alcohol wipe and dispose of the wipe in the biohazard bag. 7. Add 1 drop of Anti-A serum to the A well, add 1 drop of Anti-B serum to the B well, and add 1 drop of Anti-Rh serum to the Rh well (see Figure 1). 8. Stir each mixture thoroughly with a clean toothpick. Use a new toothpick per well to avoid cross-contamination! Dispose of the tooth picks in the biohazard bag. 9. Observe and record you results in Table 3; write “yes” if it clots and “no” if there is no clot. 10. Determine your blood type. Refer to Table 2 for help. TABLE 3: AGGLUTINATION REACTIONS Anti-A reaction Anti-B reaction Anti-Rh reaction Blood Type (Agglutination or not?) (Agglutination or not?) (Agglutination or not?) 11. Pool and record the class data and calculate percentage of students with each blood type in Table 4. Blood Type TABLE 4: CLASS BLOOD TYPE DATA # of students with Total # of students blood type in class % of students with blood type A+ AB+ BAB+ ABO+ O- Questions Answer questions 1 - 5 based on your blood type. 1. What is your blood type? 2. What antigens are found on your red blood cells? 3. What antibodies are found in your plasma? 4. If you need a blood transfusion, what blood types could you safely receive? 5. If you donated blood, to what blood type(s) could you safely donate? 6. Below is a diagram representing the bllod type analysis of a new patient (patient X). From the information obtained from the slide, fill out the medical technologist’s report below. Medical Technologist’s Report Patient Name: __________________________ ABO Group: ___________ Rh Type: ______________ Med Tech Name: _______________________ 7. Contrast antigens and antibodies. Include at least two differences. 8. List three situations where blood typing could be used. 9. Define erythroblastosis fetalis. 10. In the case of erythroblastosis fetalis and Rh incompatibility, how is this condition treated? 11. Summarize how the method of blood typing works and how the results explain what blood type a person has.