Lab – Blood Vessels & Blood

Biology 12 – Unit 6
Name _____________________________
Lab – Blood
/20 marks
Blood is classified as either type A, type B, type AB or type O depending on the presence or
absence of antigens on the surface of our erythrocytes (red blood cells). These antigens are
genetically inherited from our parents and may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins or
glycolipids. Antigens are either classified as type A antigens or type B antigens.
Specialized white blood cells called plasma cells produce antibodies against antigens that are NOT
present on our own erythrocytes. Antibodies, aka immunoglobulins (Ig) are glycoproteins that are
found in the blood and some other body fluids. Antibodies are used by the immune system to
identify and neutralize foreign invaders such as bacteria and also foreign blood cells that may have
been received during a blood transfusion or organ transplant. Antibodies against A and B antigens
begin to build up blood plasma shortly after birth and peak once we are approximately 8-10 years
old. As we age, the number of antibodies in our blood declines.
Antigen Present on
Antibodies Present in
Blood Plasma
Can Give
Blood To
Can Receive
Blood From
O, A
O, B
A and B
Neither Anti-A nor Anti-B
O, A, B, AB
Neither A nor B
Both Anti-A and Anti-B
O, A, B, AB
 In Canada, approximately 42% of people have type A blood, 9% have type B blood, 46%
have type O blood and 3% have type AB blood.
Importance of Blood Typing
People can only receive transfusions of only certain blood types, depending of the type of blood
they have. If incompatible blood types are mixed, erythrocyte destruction, agglutination (clumping
of erythrocytes) and other serious and life threatening problems such as kidney failure and shock
can occur. When incompatible blood types are mixed the recipient’s antibodies will attack the
incoming erythrocytes and cause them to agglutinate i.e. clump together. Agglutination occurs
when the antibodies present in the recipient’s blood join together the “foreign” blood cells into
large clumps. These clumps of erythrocytes then illicit a massive immune reaction and are attacked
and destroyed by the recipient’s own immune system. These types of severe reactions are called
acute hemolytic reactions. If the condition is not quickly treated, the recipient will likely die.
Therefore, it is critical that compatible blood is used in a blood transfusion or organ transplant.
When a patient requires blood, a sample of their blood is typed and cross-matched by a lab
technician to ensure the patient receives blood from a compatible blood donor. In the lab a
technician mixes a sample of the recipient's serum with a sample of the donor's red blood cells and
checks to see if the mixture agglutinates, or forms clumps. If agglutination occurs, that particular
donor's blood cannot be transfused to the recipient. You can see agglutination in the diagram
Biology 12 – Unit 6
Name _____________________________
People that have type O blood are said to be universal donors because their blood cells do not
have A or B antigens on them. People with type AB blood are said to be universal acceptors, and
can receive any recipient blood type because they do not have any antibodies in their blood
1. To simulate the same procedures used in a medical laboratory to type and cross-match blood
samples of blood donors and recipients.
2. To use observe a prepared slide of blood.
4 Blood typing Slides
8 Toothpicks
1 prepared slide of blood
Compound Microscope (400 x mag)
 Simulated Blood Samples:
 Mr. Smith
 Mr. Jones
 Mr. Green
 Ms. Brown
 Simulated Anti-A Serum
 Simulated Anti-B Serum
Part 1: ABO Blood Typing
1. Label each of your 4 blood typing slides with the following labels:
 Slide #1 – Mr. Smith
 Slide #2 – Mr. Jones
 Slide #3 – Mr. Green
 Slide #4 – Ms. Brown
2. Place 3 or 4 drops of Mr. Smith’s blood in each of the A and B wells of slide #1.
3. Place 3 or 4 drops of Mr. Jones’ blood in each of the A and B wells of slide #2.
Biology 12 – Unit 6
Name _____________________________
4. Place 3 or 4 drops of Mr. Green’s blood in each of the A and B wells of slide #3.
5. Place 3 or 4 drops of Ms. Brown’s blood in each of the A and B wells of slide #4.
6. Place 3 or 4 drops of the simulated anti-A serum in each A well on the four slides.
7. Place 3 or 4 drops of the simulated anti-B serum in each B well on the four slides.
8. Obtain 2 toothpicks per blood typing slide. Stir each well with a separate clean toothpick for 30
seconds. To avoid splattering don’t press too hard.
9. Observe each slide and record your observations in table 1. in the results section of the lab.
10. Once observations are complete, wash all blood typing slides and toothpicks. The simulated
blood and anti-serum used in the lab is non-toxic and can be washed down the drain.
Table 1. Blood typing results. (4 marks)
Anti-A Serum
Anti-B Serum
Blood Type
Slide #1
Mr. Smith
Slide #2
Mr. Jones
Slide #3
Mr. Green
Slide #4
Ms. Brown
Key to Identifying Blood Types:
 If agglutination (clumping) occurs ONLY when the anti-A serum was added, the blood type is A.
 If agglutination (clumping) occurs ONLY when the anti-B serum was added, the blood type is B.
 If agglutination (clumping) occurs when a blood sample is tested with BOTH anti-serum A and
anti-serum B, the blood type is AB.
 If NO agglutination (clumping) occurs when a blood sample is tested with BOTH anti-serum A
and anti-serum B, the blood type is O.
Using your data from table 1. fill in table 2. which summarizes the antigen (agglutinogens) and
antibodies (agglutinins) found in each of your simulated patients blood.
Biology 12 – Unit 6
Name _____________________________
Table 2. Antigens and Antibodies in Blood of Simulated Patients (8 marks)
Slide #1
Mr. Smith
Slide #2
Mr. Jones
Slide #3
Mr. Green
Slide #4
Ms. Brown
Part B – Observing Red and White Blood Cells
The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells aka RBCs); several specialized
leukocytes (white blood cells aka WBCs), and platelets. Erythrocytes are circular, biconcave disks
that are approximately 5-8 μm in size; their shape makes them good at transporting respiratory
gases, in particular oxygen (O2), as well as carbon dioxide (CO2). The number of circulating RBCs is
closely related to the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity.
Leukocytes are larger that erythrocytes and range in size from 9-25 μm. The main function of
leukocytes is to fight of foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cellular debris.
Leukocytes are a unique type of blood cell because they are capable of moving against the current
of the blood stream. This allows them to target infections and pass through blood vessel walls so
they can enter tissues. A person’s normal WBC count normally varies from 5,000 – 10,000 WBCs /
mm3 of blood. When a person has an infection, the body produces more WBCs to fight it therefore,
doctors can order a WBC count to diagnose certain illnesses.
1. Obtain a prepared slide of blood and put it on the stage of the microscope.
2. Lower the stage of the microscope and select the 10 X objective lens. Watch the stage carefully
as you raise it towards your lens until you get a blurry image through the ocular lens. Use the fine
focus knob to sharpen your image.
3. Switch to the high power (40 X) objective lens. Refocus ONLY USING THE FINE FOCUS KNOB.
You risk smashing your slide and the microscope lens if you use the coarse focus knob.
4. Observe the red blood cells and white blood cells.
5. Using the blood cell poster, try to identify the type of WBC you see in the field of view.
Biology 12 – Unit 6
Name _____________________________
Look at blood under a compound light microscope and make a biological sketch of a RBC and a
WBC and identify the type of WBC (use the blood poster to help you to identify the type of
leukocyte). (3 marks)
Characteristics of a good biological drawing:
Drawings must have an underlined title, centred at the top of the page. The title must indicate the
cell/tissue/organ type
The date of the assignment and your name must appear in the upper right corner of the page.
The drawing itself must be:
Drawn just left of centre on the page;
Proportional such that all components of the drawing are proportional to the specimen itself;
Stippled to show contrast and detail. Shading must never be used;
Drawn with a sharp pencil.
Very detailed and should not contain any artefacts.
Biology 12 – Unit 6
Name _____________________________
Discussion Questions: (5 marks)
1. Could Mr. Jones donate blood to Mr. Smith? Explain.
2. Could Ms. Brown receive blood from Mr. Green, Mr. Jones or Mr. Smith? Explain.
3. What is a universal acceptor? Explain.
4. What is a universal donor? Explain.
5. Do mature RBC have a nucleus? Explain.