Chapter 4 Evolution and Biodiversity Core Case Study: The Goldilocks planet 1. List 5 qualities that the earth possesses as a planet that provides conditions for life to exist. 4-1 ORIGINS OF LIFE 2. Was Darwin the first to offer the idea that organisms change over time. 3. What is the relationship between biological evolution and natural selection? 4. Is natural selection a complete theory? 5. Name the 2 phases of the earth’s early development. 6. Fossils found so far probably represent only _____ % of all species that have ever lived. 4-2 EVOLUTION, NATURAL SELECTION, AND ADAPTATION 7. _______________ and not _______________ evolve by becoming genetically different. 8. Name 2 ways in which mutations can occur. 9. Are most mutations harmless or lethal or beneficial? 10. Name 3 conditions necessary for biological evolution to occur by natural selection. 11. When the environment changes, a population of species has which 3 possible outcomes? 12. __________ mutate, _______________ are selected, and _______________ evolve that are better adapted to _______________and _______________ under existing environmental conditions. 13. How can coevolution be compared to an arms race? 14. How does hybridization and gene transfer compare with natural selection? 15. Name 2 limits to adaptation through natural selection. 16. Explain the error in the following 3 myths: a. Survival of the fittest is survival of the strongest… b. Organisms develop the traits they need…. c. Evolution follows a grand plan of nature… 4-3 GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES, CLIMATE CHANGE, CATASTROPHES, AND EVOLUTION 17. How did the following affect Evolution in the past? a. Tectonic plates b. Volcanoes c. Earthquakes d. Climate change e. Asteroids 4-4 ECOLOGICAL NICHES AND ADAPTATION 18. What keeps a fundamental niche from reaching its potential? 19. Give an example of each of the following: a. Generalist species b. Specialist species 20. Is it better to be a generalist species or a specialist species? Explain. 21. Is evolutionary divergence a result of a generalist or special species? 4-5 SPECIATION, EXTINCTION, AND BIODIVERSITY 22. For some __________ reproducing organisms, speciation may occur within _______________ of years. For __________ organisms, speciation takes _______________ to _______________ of years. 23. _______________ and _______________ allow some species to speed up the process of evolution and speciation. 24. What type of geographic areas can endemic species be found? 25. Biologists estimate that __________ % of all the species that ever existed are now extinct. 26. Average annual background extinction occurs at a rate of __________ species for each _______________ species on the earth. 27. How many mass extinctions have occurred in the past 500 million years? 28. Is there a positive to a mass extinction? 29. Speciation - _______________ = biodiversity 30. According to a 2005 study, extinction rates have increased _______________ times the natural background extinction rate. 31. Why can’t we merely rely on speciation to replace the populations lost due to extinction? 4-6 GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE FUTURE OF EVOLUTION 32. What are 2 benefits that gene splicing has over traditional cross breeding? 33. What is the biopharming? 34. Describe the field of synthetic biology. 35. How can clones help reverse extinction? 36. What are 3 concerns about the genetic revolution? 37. What is an environmental impact if the average life expectancy of humans increased 10 years? 38. Whenever we intervene in nature, we must pause and ask, “___________________________? “ 39. Compared to other species, consider the traits that humans do NOT have and list 5 of them. 40. What are the 3 adaptations that have allowed us to survive? 41. Should we be called Homo ignoramus instead? CRITICAL THINKING 42. How would you respond to someone who tells you that he or she does not believe in biological evolution by natural selection because it is “just a theory”? 43. How would you respond to someone that claims we do not need to worry about air pollution because natural selection will enable humans to develop lungs that can detoxify pollutants? 44. How would you respond to someone who says that because extinction is a natural process, we should not worry about the loss of biodiversity? 45. Formulate a guideline based on the principles of sustainability in order for genetic engineering and synthetic biology to be used to modify a species.